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Employment and Training Programs

Employment and Training Programs

(p.517) 8 Employment and Training Programs
Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States
Robert J. LaLonde
University of Chicago Press

This chapter, which describes employment and training policies in the United States, and follows the key developments in them during the last forty years, touches briefly on some of the methodological developments that the evaluations of these policies have produced. It surveys some of the principal empirical findings in the literature on the effectiveness of these programs. During the last four decades, policymakers have made modest investments in a variety of employment and training services designed to improve the skills and employment prospects of the economically disadvantaged and unemployed. In fiscal year 1998, the federal government spent about as much on the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) as it did on programs like the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and Head Start, child care, development block grants, and the school lunch program. Government training programs under the Workforce Investment Act, JTPA, and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) differ from other programs covered in this volume, because (a) they are not necessarily limited to low-income people and (b) low-income people are not necessarily entitled to receive these services.

Keywords:   employment training policy, unemployed, poor, JTPA, Investment Act, CETA, government training programs

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