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Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Reproductive Behavior in Zambia

Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Reproductive Behavior in Zambia

Chapter:
(p.59) 2 Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Reproductive Behavior in Zambia
Source:
African Successes, Volume II
Author(s):
Nicholas Wilson
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226316192.003.0002

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is the single most effective HIV prevention intervention in practice today. At the turn of the 21st century, PMTCT was virtually unavailable for the vast majority of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. By 2010, 54 percent of HIV positive pregnant women in the region received PMTCT. Nonetheless, there is little reliable empirical evidence on the behavioral effects of PMTCT. This paper documents the rapid expansion of access to PMTCT in Zambia during the period 2000 to 2007 and provides some of the first evidence on the change in reproductive behavior associated with PMTCT scale-up. The results of a primarily descriptive analysis suggest that PMTCT may have generated increases in knowledge about PMTCT and MTCT, large reductions in child mortality and pregnancy rates, and smaller changes in breastfeeding rates. However, additional research is required to address the potential endogeneity of PMTCT availability.

Keywords:   fertility, HIV, PMTCT, reproductive technology, Zambia, AIDS

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