This chapter identifies various important ideas that emerge in Nietzsche's posthumous fragments dating from his time in Sorrento, and tracks these ideas through to their ultimate manifestations in Things Human, All Too Human and in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The pattern is to look at an experience specific to the South of Italy and Nietzsche's travels there and to track the abstraction of this experience to a grander scale, as it becomes an important element in his new Philosophy of the Free Spirit. The first of these instances is centered on Paul Rée, whose thinking about the physiological manifestations and origins of morality has a great influence on Nietzsche at this time, which he will engage strongly in Things Human, All Too Human, much to the despair of his Schopenhauerian friends. Nietzsche will later refine these ideas in his important work, On The Genealogy of Morals. The tracking process culminates in the establishment of the connection between the Isle of Ischia, which Nietzsche could see, along with Mount Vesuvius, from his balcony at the Villa Rubinacci, and the figure of the Blessed Isles central to Zarathustra. The Blessed Isles are where Zarathustra's disciples live, who are called free spirits.
Keywords: The Blessed Isles, Paul Rée, Genealogy of Morals, Zarathustra, genealogy, Ischia, volcano