The Changing FrontierRethinking Science and Innovation Policy

The Changing FrontierRethinking Science and Innovation Policy

Adam B. Jaffe and Benjamin F. Jones

Print publication date: 2016

ISBN: 9780226286723

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Abstract

In 1945, Vannevar Bush published Science: The Endless Frontier and thereby established an intellectual architecture that has largely defined public science institutions and policy since. In this NBER volume, we take stock of the science and innovation environment today and consider two key questions: (1) what are critical dimensions of change in science and innovation systems since Vannevar Bush articulated his vision, and (2) what are the implications of these changes for policies and institutions in the years and decades ahead? The Changing Frontier has twelve chapters in four parts. Part I investigates the organization of scientific research, especially the increasingly dominant role of teamwork. Part II examines shifts in the geography of scientific research and connects to a broader literature suggesting that geographic agglomeration remains an enduring feature of innovative activity. Part III considers market-based innovation, emphasizing new modes of entrepreneurship in mobile applications and clean energy, while also considering state-level entrepreneurship policies. Part IV investigates the evolution of science institutions in the light of Bush’s initial vision, and then considers how science-innovation linkages have shifted with the nature of technology. This volume brings together in one place many important changes in the nature of science and innovation, and articulates the interplay between science and innovation practice and public science institutions and policy.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Adam B. Jaffe and Benjamin F. Jones

I The Organization of Scientific Research

1 Why and Wherefore of Increased Scientific Collaboration

Richard B. Freeman, Ina Ganguli, and Raviv Murciano-Goroff

2 The (Changing) Knowledge Production Function

Annamaria Conti and Christopher C. Liu

3 Collaboration, Stars, and the Changing Organization of Science

Ajay Agrawal, John McHale, and Alexander Oettl

4 Credit History

Joshua S. Gans and Fiona Murray

II The Geography of Innovation

5 The Rise of International Coinvention

Lee Branstetter, Guangwei Li, and Francisco Veloso

6 Information Technology and the Distribution of Inventive Activity

Chris Forman, Avi Goldfarb, and Shane Greenstein

III Entrepreneurship and Market-Based Innovation

7 Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Renewable Energy

Ramana Nanda, Ken Younge, and Lee Fleming

8 Economic Value Creation in Mobile Applications

Timothy F. Bresnahan, Jason P. Davis, and Pai-Ling Yin

9 State Science Policy Experiments

Maryann Feldman and Lauren Lanahan

IV Historical Perspectives on Science Institutions and Paradigms

10 The Endless Frontier

Paula Stephan

11 Algorithms and the Changing Frontier

Hezekiah Agwara, Philip Auerswald, and Brian Higginbotham