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The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries

The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries

(p.217) 7 The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries
Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy
Raghbendra JhaJohn Whalley
University of Chicago Press

This chapter explores the environmental regime in developing countries, focusing on the direct effects of industrial emissions, the impacts of untreated waste (industrial and human) on air and water quality, congestion effects of traffic, soil erosion, and open-access resource problems (including forests). It looks at the many difficulties involved with adequately characterizing this regime, not the least of which is the heterogeneity across both environmental problems and policy responses in the developing world. Enforcement and compliance (which are typically lax in developing countries) also play a central role in defining this regime. The chapter argues that there is a tendency in much of the literature of the last few years to equate environmental problems in developing countries with pollutants (or emissions). It also discusses the relationship among growth, environmental policy reform, and environmental quality. Finally, it contends that the welfare gains from moving to full internationalization would seem to be the more appropriate comparative measure of the severity of environmental problems across countries (or changes over time).

Keywords:   environmental regime, developing countries, industrial emissions, environmental quality, pollutants, welfare, internationalization, environmental problems, environmental policy, soil erosion

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