This chapter suggests that the roots of reconstruction violence lay deep within American politics, culture, and history. The elements of such culture, present since the revolutionary era, became more pronounced during the Civil War. And yet, its violent implications grew worse as slavery was abolished and new opportunities opened up for black Americans. However, this led to the empowerment of African Americans in becoming full American citizens, instead of creating a white supremacist counterrevolution.
Keywords: slavery, african americans, civil war, white supremacist, violence