This chapter explains that Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston quickly outgrew their first successful waterworks and found themselves in a continuous race with demand. From waterwheels, the three cities managed to improve their waterworks with turbine designs in the mid-nineteenth century. During the late 1800s, the theory and practice of waterworks became more technically sophisticated, capital-intensive, and standardized than it had been when Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston built their earlier systems. This period also saw the emergence of the first generation of formally trained hydraulic engineers, who drew on each other's knowledge and experience in building works to more consistent specifications.
Keywords: waterworks, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, building works, hydraulic engineers