This chapter discusses the factors that led to the triumph of feminization in teaching everywhere in America. For example, during the Civil War, women entered teaching to an unprecedented extent, and when the conflict ended men returned to the classroom, but not to the same degree as prior to the war. Thus the Civil War was a “shock” that had permanent consequences for the gender composition of teaching. And then, during the late nineteenth century, a variety of conditions led to the more universal diffusion of the desire to capture the benefits of female teachers—that is, lower salary costs and the perceived advantages of women's nature in this sort of work.
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