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Reluctant CapitalistsBookselling and the Culture of Consumption$

Laura J. Miller

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780226525907

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226525921.001.0001

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(p.231) Appendix: Ownership Histories of Major American Chain Bookstores

(p.231) Appendix: Ownership Histories of Major American Chain Bookstores

Source:
Reluctant Capitalists
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

Barnes & Noble

1910

Doubleday bookstore opened by Doubleday, Page Publishers

1986

Doubleday sold to Bertelsmann

1990

Bertelsmann sells Doubleday Book Shops to BDB Corp.

1913

Charles Scribner's Sons opens first Scribner Book Store

1984

Scribner family sells Charles Scribner's Sons to Macmillan Inc.

1984

Scribner family sells Scribner Book Stores to Rizzoli Inter-national Bookstore

1989

BDB Corp. acquires Scribner's Costa Mesa bookstore and Scribner's name from Macmillan Publishing Co. and Rizzoli International

1982

Gary Hoover founds Bookstop

1989

Crown Books buys 41 percent interest in Bookstop Inc. from an investment group

1989

BDB Corp. buys 51 percent interest in Bookstop Inc.

1990

Crown agrees to sell stake in Bookstop; BDB Corp. achieves full control

1873

Charles Montgomery Barnes starts used book business in Wheaton, Illinois

1917

William Barnes, Charles's son, enters into partnership with George Clifford Noble in New York City as textbook jobber and retailer

1969

Barnes family sells Barnes & Noble to Amtel Corp.

1971

Leonard Riggio acquires Barnes & Noble from Amtel

1979

Barnes & Noble acquires Marboro Book Stores and mail-order operations

1979

Barnes & Noble acquires Bookmasters

1984

Vendex International acquires 30 percent stake in Barnes & Noble

1985

Barnes & Noble acquires College Stores Associates

1986

Barnes & Noble (Leonard Riggio and Vendex/Vendamerica) acquires B. Dalton, Bookseller, from Dayton Hudson; merger produces BDB Corp.

1966

Dayton Co. opens first B. Dalton, Bookseller, outlet in Edina, Minnesota

1968

Dayton Co. acquires Pickwick Book Shops

1969

Dayton Co. renamed Dayton Hudson

1982

B. Dalton launches Pickwick Discount Books

1986

Dayton Hudson sells B. Dalton to Barnes & Noble (Leonard Riggio and Vendamerica); merger produces BDB Corp.

1986

Pickwick Discount Books closed

1989

BDB Corp. acquires Scribner's Costa Mesa bookstore and Scribner's name from Macmillan Publishing Co. and Rizzoli International

1990

BDB Corp. acquires Doubleday Book Shops from Bertelsmann

1990

First Barnes & Noble superstore opened

1991

BDB Corp. name changed to Barnes & Noble

1993

Barnes & Noble goes public; Len Riggio retains private control of college bookstore division

1994

Vendex sells most of its shares in Barnes & Noble, leaving Len Riggio the single largest shareholder with 26 percent of the company's shares

1996

Barnes & Noble acquires 20 percent stake in Chapters, Canada's largest bookstore chain

1996

Barnes & Noble acquires 50 percent of Calendar Club

1997

Barnes & Noble launches an online Web site, Barnesandnoble.com

1998

Barnes & Noble sells 50 percent of Barnesandnoble.com to Bertelsmann

1999

Barnes & Noble College Stores launches Textbooks.com

1999

Barnes & Noble acquires Babbage's Etc. from Len Riggio (includes Babbage's, Software Etc., GameStop, Gamestop.com)

1999

Barnes & Noble acquires J. B. Fairfax International USA

1999

Barnes & Noble sells shares in Chapters, reducing its stake to 7 percent

1999

Barnes & Noble completes IPO of Barnesandnoble.com

2000

Barnes & Noble acquires 53 percent stake in MightyWords.com

2000

Barnesandnoble.com acquires 32 percent stake in Enews.com

2000

Barnes & Noble acquires Funco

2000

Barnes & Noble acquires Fatbrain.com

2000

Barnes & Noble reduces stake in iUniverse.com to 29 percent

2000

Barnes & Noble acquires 50 percent stake in Book magazine

2000

Barnes & Noble forms Silver Lining

2001

Barnesandnoble.com forms two digital imprints: Barnes & Noble Digital and World Digital Library

2001

Barnes & Noble acquires SparkNotes.com from Delias Corp.

2001

Barnesandnoble.com's stake in eNews at 47 percent; Barnes & Noble holds 53 percent

2001

Barnes & Noble sells EPVI to CPI

2001

Barnes & Noble reduces stake in Chapters to 2 percent

2001

Babbage's name changed to GameStop

2001

Barnes & Noble's stake in iUniverse reduced to 22 percent

2002

Barnes & Noble issues IPO for GameStop; retains two-thirds stake

2002

MightyWords.com shuts down

2002

eNews is closed down

2002

Barnes & Noble increases stake in Barnesandnoble.com to 38 percent; Bertelsmann increases stake to 36.9 percent

2002

Barnes & Noble acquires Sterling Publishing

2003

Barnes & Noble forms Barnes & Noble Classics

2003

Silver Lining renamed Barnes & Noble Basics

2003

Barnes & Noble acquires Bertelsmann's 37 percent stake in Barnesandnoble.com, raising its stake to 75 percent

2003

Barnes & Noble discontinues Book magazine

2004

Barnes & Noble completes reacquisition of Barnesandnoble.com

2004

Barnes & Noble fully spins off GameStop

(p.232) (p.233)

Borders Group

1853

August Brentano founds Brentano's as a hotel newsstand

1933

Brentano family sells majority stake to Stanton Griffis

1962

Nixon Griffis, Stanton's son, and other shareholders sell Brentano's to Crowell-Collier Publishing Co.

1968

Brentano's acquires Paul Elder & Co. of San Francisco and Campbell's Book Store of Los Angeles

1973

Crowell-Collier, which merged with Macmillan in 1960, renamed Macmillan

1981

Macmillan sells Brentano's to Brentano's president, Paul Ohran, and vice presidents Peter Slater and Monica Hollander

1982

Brentano's files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy

1983

Brentano's acquired by Waldenbooks

1973

Louis and Thomas Borders open first Borders Book Shop general book-store in Ann Arbor

1992

Borders Book Shops sold to Kmart

1933

Walden Book Co. founded as chain of rental libraries by Lawrence Hoyt and Melvin Kafka

1957

Kafka sells his interest to Hoyt

1960

Russell Hoyt, Lawrence's son, enters business

1962

First Walden Book Store established in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

1969

Hoyt sells Walden Book Co. to Broadway Hale Stores; name changed to Waldenbooks

1974

Broadway Hale becomes Carter Hawley Hale

1983

Waldenbooks acquires Brentano's

1984

Carter Hawley Hale sells Waldenbooks to Kmart

1984

Waldenbooks opens Reader's Market

1986

First Waldenbooks & More opened

1987

Waldenbooks acquires U.S. outlets of Coles

1990

Management of Reader's Market switched from Waldenbooks to Kmart

1992

Waldenbooks & More discontinued

1992

Kmart founds Basset Book Shops

1992

Kmart acquires Borders Book Shops

1993

Borders absorbs Basset Book Shops

1995

Waldenbooks discontinues Longmeadow Press

1994

Kmart combines operations of Waldenbooks and Borders to form the Borders-Waldenbooks Group

1994

Borders-Walden Group acquires CD Superstore Inc. which is then renamed Planet Music Inc.

1994

Borders-Walden Inc. renamed the Borders Group

1995

Borders Group goes public; Kmart sells its stake in the company

1997

Borders Group acquires the Library Ltd. of St. Louis

1997

Borders Group acquires Books Etc. of the United Kingdom

1999

Borders Group acquires 19.9 percent of Sprout Inc.

1999

Borders Group acquires All Wound Up

2001

Sprout is dissolved

2001

All Wound Up is discontinued

2003

Borders Group acquires stake in Echo

2003

Borders Group acquires Hawley-Cooke Booksellers of Louisville

2003

Borders forms Borders Classics (publishing)

2003

Borders changes name of State Street Classics to Borders Press

2004

Borders Group acquires 97 percent stake of Paperchase Products of the United Kingdom

(p.234)

(p.235) Crown Books

1954

Herbert Haft opens first Dart Drug store

1977

Robert Haft, Herbert's son, founds Crown Books

1981

Thrifty Drug Stores buys 50 percent share of Crown Books

1983

Crown goes public

1984

Dart Group sells Dart Drug

1986

Thrifty sells stake in Crown; Dart Group is majority shareholder

1989

Super Crown Books Corp. organized as wholly owned subsidiary of Crown

1990

First Super Crown opened

1993

Herbert Haft removes Robert Haft from family businesses; Ronald Haft named Crown president

1995

Herbert and Ronald Haft removed from Crown management

1998

Dart Group (including Crown and other subsidiaries) sold to Richfood Holdings

1998

Crown files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy

1999

Crown emerges from bankruptcy

2001

Crown files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy again

2001

Crown files for liquidation

Books-A-Million

1917

Bookland founded

1987

Bookland Stores Inc. acquires Gateway

1988

First Books-A-Million superstore opened

1992

Books-A-Million acquires Book$mart, American Wholesale, and Anderson News Corp., all companies controlled by Books-A-Million's principal owners, the Anderson family

1992

Books-A-Million goes public

1994

Books-A-Million purchases Books & Co. of Ohio

1998

Anderson News Corp. acquires Aramark Magazine & Book Services

1998

Books-A-Million launches Joe Muggs Newsstand

1998

Books-A-Million acquires NetCentral

Lauriat's

1973

Encore Books founded

1984

Rite Aid Corp. acquires Encore Books from David Schlessinger

1992

Encore Books opens its first superstore

1994

Rite Aid sells Encore Books to Lauriat's

1872

Charles E. Lauriat opens first Lauriat's in Boston

1982

Lauriat's establishes Royal Discount Bookstores

1992

Royal Discount Bookstores acquires Buddenbrooks Booksmith of Boston

1994

ING Equity Partners helps finance purchase of Encore Books by Lauriat's/CMI Holding Corp.

1994

Lauriat's acquires Book Corner stores from Hudson County News Co.; Hudson retains right to Book Corner name for Hudson's airport outlets

1995

Lauriat's opens first superstore

1996

Thomas H. Lee Co. sells interest in CMI Holding Corp. to ING Equity Partners; ING becomes majority owner of CMI

1998

Lauriat's files Chapter 11 bankruptcy

1999

Lauriat's liquidates business

(p.236)