The operational and organizational principles of the new Ottoman army necessitated novel methods of time organization in different fields of military activity. While the first decades were characterized by the grafting of new practices over existing ones, toward the end of the century older patterns were gradually abandoned, making room for more meticulous, time-tabled temporal constructs. Clock hours gradually replaced prayer times as temporal references and in the last third of the century, mean time began to be used alongside the indigenous system. The officer elite of the late nineteenth century, who had absorbed these changes during their long years of training, came to identify minute time organization and related ideals of punctuality and efficiency with a more comprehensive vision of progress. Upon their rise to power following the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, they consciously sought to realize their agenda, and to convey their notions of time thrift and progress to Ottoman society as a whole.
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