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The Medieval Origins of the Legal ProfessionCanonists, Civilians, and Courts$
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James A. Brundage

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780226077598

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: March 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226077611.001.0001

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The Legal Revival of the Twelfth Century

The Legal Revival of the Twelfth Century

(p.75) * Three * The Legal Revival of the Twelfth Century
The Medieval Origins of the Legal Profession
University of Chicago Press

Fundamental changes that began to sweep through the culture, society, and economy of Western Christendom in the closing decades of the eleventh century radically transformed the laws and legal practices that prevailed during the early Middle Ages. Within the following century-and-a-half, a new legal culture emerged in the West. Specialized schools of civil law whose students studied Justinian's codified Roman law began to appear at Bologna shortly after 1100. In Bologna, too, an innovative textbook of canon law, appearing sometime in the 1140s and commonly known as “Gratian's Decretum,” soon displaced earlier canonical collections, both in the schools and in the courts. Signal developments in the law formed a key element in a larger intellectual movement that Charles Homer Haskins christened the renaissance of the twelfth century. Sir Paul Vinogradoff went on to describe the medieval revival of Roman law as “a ghost story.”

Keywords:   Charles Homer Haskins, Paul Vinogradoff, Roman law, legal system, Middle Ages, twelfth century, canon law, intellectual movement, West, civil law

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