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Shared Capitalism at WorkEmployee Ownership, Profit and Gain Sharing, and Broad-Based Stock Options$

Douglas L. Kruse, Richard B. Freeman, and Joseph R. Blasi

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780226056951

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226056968.001.0001

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(p.387) Appendix A Variable Definitions and Descriptive Statistics (All Chapters)

(p.387) Appendix A Variable Definitions and Descriptive Statistics (All Chapters)

Source:
Shared Capitalism at Work
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

Categories of Variables

  • Compensation

    1. 1. Shared capitalism

    2. 2. Pay and benefits

  • Work Organization

    1. 3. Employee participation in decisions

    2. 4. Training

    3. 5. Supervision

    4. 6. High performance work practices

    5. 7. Other work organization measures

  • Worker Attitudes and Behavior

    1. 8. Job satisfaction and company treatment of employees

    2. 9. Co-worker relations

    3. 10. Job security and expectations

    4. 11. Responding to shirking

    5. 12. Innovation outcomes

    6. 13. Other performance-related attitudes and behavior

    7. 14. Risk aversion and preferences over pay

1. Shared Capitalism

Shared capitalism index (GSS): Eight-point index with one point each for profit-sharing eligibility, gain-sharing eligibility, owning any company stock, (p.388) holding any stock options, receiving a profit-sharing bonus in the past year, receiving a gain-sharing bonus in the past year, having an above-median profit- and gain-sharing bonus as a percent of pay, and having an above-median company stock holding as a percent of pay. Mean = 1.48, s.d. = 2.14, n = 1,919.

Shared capitalism index (NBER): Ten-point index with all items in GS index, plus one point each for receiving a stock option grant in the past year, and having above-median stock option holdings as a percent of pay. Mean = 3.60, s.d. = 2.65, n = 40,522. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = 2.59, s.d. = 1.85, n = 27,507.

Profit sharing (GSS and NBER): “In your job are you eligible for any type of performance-based pay, such as individual or group bonuses, or any type of profit sharing? What does the size of these performance-based payments depend on? Company profits or performance?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), GSS mean = .372, n = 2,184, NBER mean = 713, n = 41,018.

Profit sharing as percent of pay (GSS and NBER): If “yes” to profit sharing, answer to “What was the approximate total dollar value of the payment(s) you received [in the most recent year of bonuses]?” divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. GSS mean = .024, s.d. = .066, n = 1,944, NBER mean = .068, s.d. = .124, n = 40,485.

Gain sharing (GSS and NBER): “In your job are you eligible for any type of performance-based pay, such as individual or group bonuses, or any type of profit sharing? What does the size of these performance-based payments depend on? Work group or department performance?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), GSS mean = .257, n = 2,184, NBER mean = .207, n = 41,023.

Gain sharing as percent of pay (GSS and NBER): If “yes” to gain sharing, answer to “What was the approximate total dollar value of the payment(s) you received [in the most recent year of bonuses]?” divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. GSS mean = .017, s.d. = .061, n = 2,013, NBER mean = .033, s.d. = .106, n = 40,767.

Profit/gain sharing (NBER company with innovation data in chapter 7): If “yes” to receives profits based on “company profits or performance” and/or “Workgroup or department performance” (0 = no, 1 = yes). Mean = .74, s.d. = .441, n = 27,676.

Profit/gain sharing as percent of base pay (NBER company with innovation data in chapter 7): If “yes” to receive profits based on “company profits or performance” and/or “Work group or department performance,” answer to “What was the approximate total dollar value of the payment(s) you received [in the most recent year of bonuses]?” divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. Mean = .043, s.d. = .090, n = 27,420.

(p.389) Individual bonus (GSS and NBER): “In your job are you eligible for any type of performance-based pay, such as individual or group bonuses, or any type of profit sharing? What does the size of these performance-based payments depend on? Individual performance?” (0 = no, 1 = yes). GSS mean = .290, n = 2,184, NBER mean = .290, n = 41,019. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = .140, s.d. = .343, n = 27,676.

Individual bonus as percent of pay (NBER): If “yes” to individual bonus, answer to “What was the approximate total dollar value of the payment(s) you received [in the most recent year of bonuses]?” divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. Mean = .050, s.d. = .125, n = 40,547. Chapter 11's mean for company with innovation data = .013, s.d. = .064, n = 27,609.

Hold employer stock (GSS): “Do you own any shares of stock in the company where you now work, either directly or through some type of retirement or stock plan?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .212, n = 2,202.

Employer stock as percent of pay (GSS): If “yes” to “hold employer stock,” answer to “Please give a general estimate of how much cash you would get if all this stock were sold today?” divided by annual earnings, otherwise 0, mean = .111, s.d. = .977, n = 2,186.

Hold employer stock (NBER): Any employer stock held through ESOP, Employee Stock Purchase Plan, 401(k), exercised stock options, or open market purchases (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .640, n = 41,206. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = .53, s.d. = .499, n = 27,825.

Employer stock aspercent of pay (NBER): If “yes” to “Hold employer stock,” the sum of answers to questions about value of stock held in different plans, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. NBER mean = .398, s.d. = .808, n = 40,367. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = .227, s.d. = .476, n = 27,469.

Hold stock options (GSS and NBER): “Do you currently hold any stock options in your company (vested or unvested)?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), GSS mean = .123, n = 2,188, NBER mean = .219, n = 41,166. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = .03, s.d. = .179, n = 27,816.

Stock options as percent of pay (NBER): If “yes” to “Hold stock options,” the sum of answers to questions about value of vested and unvested stock, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0. NBER mean = .395, s.d. = 1.490, n = AO,922. Chapter 7's mean for company with innovation data = .018, s.d. = .225, n = 27,716.

ESOP (NBER): Participant in ESOP (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .081, n = 41,109.

(p.390) ESOP stock as percent of pay (NBER): Employer stock held in ESOP, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0, mean = .067, s.d. = .417, n = 41,002.

ESPP (NBER): Hold stock purchased through Employee Stock Purchase Plan (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .176, n = 41,169.

ESPP stock as percent of pay (NBER): Employer stock held in Employee Stock Purchase Plan, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0, mean = .078, s.d. = .304, n = 41,168.

401 (k) stock (NBER): Hold employer stock in 401(k) plan (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .335, n = 40,885.

401 (k) stock as percent of pay (NBER): Employer stock held in 401 (k) plan, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0, mean = .189, s.d. = .525, n = 40,730.

Stock from exercised options as percent of pay (NBER): Employer stock held from exercised options, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0, mean = .052, s.d. = .396, n = 40,956.

Stock from exercised options (NBER): Hold employer stock from exercised options (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .050, n = 41,032.

Open mkt. stock as percent of pay (NBER): Employer stock purchased on open market, divided by basepay + overtime, otherwise 0, mean = .019, s.d. = .165, n = 41,144.

Open market stock (NBER): Hold stock purchased on open market (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .073, n = 41,145.

2. Pay and Benefits

Yearly earnings (GSS): Total yearly earnings from main job (natural log), mean = 10.12, s.d. = 1.05, n = 1,888.

Paid what you deserve (GSS): “How fair is what you earn on your job in comparison to others doing the same type of work you do?” (1–5 scale, 1 = much less than what you deserve, 5 = much more than you deserve), mean = 3.43, s.d. = .86, n = 2,171.

Fringe benefits good (GSS): “My fringe benefits are good.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 2.87, s.d. = 1.09, n = 2,198.

Fixed pay (NBER): Yearly base pay + overtime (natural log), mean = 10.710, s.d. = .783, n = 31,162.

Fixed pay difference from market (NBER): “Do you believe your fixed annual wages are higher or lower than those of employees with similar experience (p.391) and job descriptions in other companies in your region? By what percent is it higher or lower?” mean = −4.76, s.d. = 17.10, n = 31,793.

Fixed pay at or above market (NBER): “Do you believe your fixed annual wages are higher or lower than those of employees with similar experience and job descriptions in other companies in your region?” (rated on scale of 1 = lower to 5 = higher, recoded for this variable as 0 = less than 3, 1 = 3 or greater), mean = 594, n = 35,860.

Total compensation difference from market (NBER): “Do you believe your total compensation is higher or lower than those of employees with similar experience and job descriptions in other companies in your region? By what percent is it higher or lower?” mean = −2.07, s.d. = 18.81, n = 30,440.

Grade of company on wages (NBER): “If you were to rate how well this company takes care of workers on a scale similar to school grades, what grade would you give in these areas? Paying good wages.” (0–4 scale, 0 = F, 4 = A), mean = 2.54, s.d. = 1.06, n = 40,679.

Grade of company on benefits (NBER): “If you were to rate how well this company takes care of workers on a scale similar to school grades, what grade would you give in these areas? Giving fair benefits to workers” (0–4 scale, 0 = F, 4 = A), mean = 2.64, s.d. = 1.08, n = 40,611.

3. Employee Participation in Decisions

Lot of say on job (GSS): “I have a lot of say about what happens on my job” (1–4 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree), mean = 2.83, s.d. = .88, n = 2,204. (In chapter 1, “Lot of say on job” is coded 1 for “strongly agree” and 0 otherwise.)

Make decisions with others (GSS): “In your job, how often do you take part with others in making decisions that affect you?” (1–4 scale, 1 = never, 4 = often), mean = 3.08, s.d. = .93, n = 2,211. (In chapter 1, “Often make decisions with others” is coded 1 for “often” and 0 otherwise.)

Help set way things done on job (GSS): “How often do you participate with others in helping set the way things are done on your job?” (1–4 scale, 1 = never, 4 = often), mean = 3.14, s.d. = .92, n = 2,210. (In chapter 1, “Often help set way things done on job” is coded 1 for “often” and 0 otherwise.)

High participation in decision (GSS): This measure has a score of 1 if the sum of scales of the previous two items is 7 or 8, and 0 otherwise. Mean = .466, n = 2,226.

Participation index (GSS): Average of “Often help set way things done on job,” “Often make decisions with others,” and binary measure of “Lot of say on job” (alpha = .737).

(p.392) Freedom in doing work (GSS): “I am given a lot of freedom to decide how to do my own work.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.31, s.d. = .85, n = 2,208.

In EI team (NBER): “Some companies have organized workplace decision-making in ways to get more employee input and involvement. Are you personally involved in any team, committee, or task force that addresses issues such as product quality, cost cutting, productivity, health and safety, or other workplace issues?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .35, n = 40,122.

Involved in job decisions (NBER): “How much involvement and direct influence do YOU have in: Deciding HOW to do your job and organize the work?” (1–4 scale, 1 = none, 4 = a lot), mean = 3.27, s.d. = .87, n = 40,750. (In chapter 1, “Lot of involvement in job decisions” is coded 1 for “a lot” and 0 otherwise.)

Involved in department goals (NBER): “How much involvement and direct influence do YOU have in: Setting GOALS for your work group or department” (1–4 scale, 1 = none, 4 = a lot), mean = 2.59, s.d. = 1.04, n = 40,594. (In chapter 1, “Lot of involvement in setting department goals” is coded 1 for “a lot” and 0 otherwise.)

Involved in company decisions (NBER): “How much involvement and direct influence do YOU have in: Overall company decisions?” (1–4 scale, 1 = none, 4 = a lot), mean = 1.71, s.d. = .86, n = 40,520. (In chapter 1, “Lot of involvement in company decisions” is coded 1 for “a lot” and 0 otherwise.)

Satisfied with participation (NBER): “Overall, how satisfied are you with the influence you have in company decisions that affect your job and work life?” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all satisfied, 4 = very satisfied), mean = 2.61, s.d. = .85, n = 40,545.

4. Training

Training opportunities (GSS): “I have the training opportunities I need to perform my job safely and competently.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.48, s.d. = .74, n = 2,204.

Formal training (NBER): “In the last twelve months have you received any formal training from your current employer, such as in classes or seminars sponsored by the employer?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .564, n = 40,460.

Training hours (NBER): If “yes” to formal training, answer to “About how many hours of formal training have you received in the last twelve months? If “no” to formal training, coded as 0. Mean = 17.80, s.d. = 40.38, n = 39,426.

(p.393) Informal training (NBER): “To what extent have fellow employees taught you job skills, problem solving, short cuts, or other ways to improve your work, on an informal basis?” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all, 4 = to a great extent), mean = 2.89, s.d. = .85, n = 40,651.

5. Supervision

Supervisor helpful (GSS): “My supervisor is helpful to me in getting the job done.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.26, s.d. = .88, n = 2,197.

Supervisor cares (GSS): “My supervisor is concerned about the welfare of those under him or her.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.26, s.d. = .88, n = 2,185.

Closeness of supervision (NBER): “Are you closely supervised, or do you work fairly independently of close supervision?” (0–10 scale, 0 = independent of close supervision, 10 = closely supervised), mean = 3.35, s.d. = 2.63, n = 40,845 (reverse-scored for chapter 1 measure, “Free from supervision”).

6. High Performance Work Practices

High performance policy index (NBER)(index mean = 1.77, s.d. = .86, n = 37,125):

Additive index of:

  1. a) Employee involvement team: “Some companies have organized workplace decision-making in ways to get more employee input and involvement. Are you personally involved in any team, committee, or task force that addresses issues such as product quality, cost cutting, productivity, health and safety, or other workplace issues?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .347, n = 40,122.

  2. b) Formal training: “In the last twelve months have you received any formal training from your current employer, such as in classes or seminars sponsored by the employer?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), mean = .564, n = 40,460.

  3. c) Job security: “Thinking about the next twelve months, how likely do you think it is that you will lose your job or be laid off?” (coded for scale as 0 = very likely or fairly likely, 1 = not too likely or not at all likely), mean = .843, n = 38,510.

High performance work system (HPWS) (NBER company with innovation data, chapter 7): Mean of following six binary items:

  1. a) “Are you personally involved in any team, committee, or task force that addresses issues such as product quality, cost cutting, productivity, health and safety, or other workplace issues?” (0 = no, 1 = yes).

  2. (p.394) b) “In the last twelve months have you received any formal training from your current employer, such as in classes or seminars sponsored by the employer?” (0 = no, 1 = yes).

  3. c) “How frequently do you participate in a job rotation or cross-training program where you work or are trained on a job with different duties than your regular job?” (0 = never or occasionally, 1 = frequently).

  4. d) “How effective is your work area or team at selecting the very best people to be part of our team/area?” (based on 1–7 scale, item coded as 0 = ineffective or neutral [1 to 4], 1 = effective [5 to 7]).

  5. e) “Thinking about the next twelve months, how likely do you think it is that you will lose your job or be laid off?” (0 = very or somewhat likely, 1 = not very or not at all likely).

  6. f) “How effective is your work area or team at sharing information and ideas with each other?” (based on 1–7 scale, item coded as 0 = ineffective or neutral [1 to 4]), 1 = effective [5 to 7]).

    Index mean = .46, s.d. = .240, n = 27,801, alpha = .46.

High performance work system team (HPWST) (NBER company with innovation data, chapter 7): Mean of following items, all measured on a 1–7 scale (1 = very ineffective, 4 = neutral, 7 = very ineffective).

  1. a) “How effective is your work area or team at selecting the very best people to be part of our team/area?”

  2. b) “How effective is your work area or team at setting clear performance goals?”

  3. c) “How effective is your work area or team at getting training on skills we need to solve customer problems?”

  4. d) “How effective is your work area or team at sharing information and ideas with each other?”

  5. e) “How effective is your work area or team at meeting our customers either in our facilities or theirs?”

  6. f) “How effective is your work area or team at rewarding members of the group for excellent work?”

    Index mean = 4.36, s.d. = 1.32, n = 27,251, alpha

7. Other Work Organization Measures

Work as part of team (GSS and NBER): “In your job, do you normally work as part of a team or group, or do you work mostly on your own?” (coded 1 if part of team, 0 otherwise), GSS mean = .58, n = 2,206, n = NBER mean = .59, n = 32,301.

Ease of observing co-worker performance (GSS and NBER): “In your job how easy is it for you to see whether your co-workers are working well or poorly? Please rate on a scale of 0 to 10.” (0 = not at all easy, 10 = very (p.395) easy), GSS mean = 7.71, s.d. = 3.18, n = 2,394; NBER mean = 6.81, s.d. = 2.73, n = 40,791.

Frequently participate in job rotation (NBER): “How frequently do you participate in a job rotation or cross-training program where you work or are trained on a job with different duties than your regular job?” coded 1 if worker responded “frequently,” and 0 otherwise), NBER mean = .11 n = 30,262.

Alignment: Mean of following items, all measured on a 1–4 scale (1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = to some extent, 4 = to a great extent):

  1. a) “To what extent do you understand your company's overall plan for being successful?”

  2. b) “To what extent do you personally agree with this plan?”

  3. c) “To what extent do you feel that the company is providing you with the information, training, and resources necessary to help achieve the goals of this plan?”

  4. d) “To what extent do you feel that your company's culture encourages you to share your ideas about how to achieve the goals of this plan?”

    Index mean = 2.87, s.d. = .686, n = 27,492, alpha = .83.

8. Job Satisfaction and Company Treatment of Employees

Job satisfaction (GSS): “All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your job?” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all satisfied, 4 = very satisfied), mean = 3.27, s.d. = .80, n = 1,656.

Job satisfaction (NBER): “How satisfied are you in your job?” (1–7 scale, 1 = completely dissatisfied, 7 = completely satisfied), mean = 5.04, s.d. = 1.29, n = 40,842.

Treated with respect (GSS): “At the place where I work, I am treated with respect” (1–4 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree), mean = 3.27, s.d. = .68, n = 2,209.

Management-employee relations (GSS): “In general, how would you describe relations in your work place between management and employees?” (1–5 scale, 1 = very bad, 5 = very good), mean = 3.95, s.d. = .99, n = 2,205.

Management is trustworthy (GSS): “I trust the management at the place where I work.” (1–4 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree), mean = 2.97, s.d. = 0.85, n = 2,201.

Promotions handled fairly (GSS): “Promotions are handled fairly.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 2.84, s.d. = .98, n = 2,083.

(p.396) Worker safety is high priority (GSS): “The safety of workers is a high priority with management where I work.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.31, s.d. = .70, n = 2,194.

Stress (GSS): “How often do you find your work stressful?” (1–5 scale, 1 = always, 5 = never), mean = 3.08, s.d. = 1.03, n = 2,209.

Employees share when company does well (NBER): “When the company does well, employees share the benefits.” (1–7 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree), mean = 5.00, s.d. = 1.78, n = 40,676.

Company fair to employees (NBER): “Overall, this company is fair to its employees.” (1–7 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree), mean = 4.75, s.d. = 1.71, n = 40,632.

Company grade on employee relations (NBER): “If you were to rate how well this company takes care of workers on a scale similar to school grades, what grade would you give in these areas? Overall relations with employees.” (0–4 scale, 0 = F, 4 = A), mean = 2.45, s.d. = 1.07, n = 40,464.

Company grade on sharing info (NBER): “If you were to rate how well this company takes care of workers on a scale similar to school grades, what grade would you give in these areas? Sharing information with employees.” (0–4 scale, 0 = F, 4 = A), mean = 2.44, s.d. = 1.11, n = 40,523.

Company grade on trustworthy (NBER): “If you were to rate how well this company takes care of workers on a scale similar to school grades, what grade would you give in these areas? Trustworthiness in keeping its promises.” (0–4 scale, 0 = F, 4 = A), mean = 2.33, s.d. = 1.15, n = 40,385.

9. Co-Worker Relations

Co-workers can be relied on for help (GSS): “The people I work with can be relied on when I need help.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.37, s.d. = .75, n = 2,207.

Co-workers take personal interest in me (GSS): “The people I work with take a personal interest in me.” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all true, 4 = very true), mean = 3.21, s.d. = .82, n = 2,197.

10. Job Security and Expectations

Job security (GSS and NBER): “Thinking about the next twelve months, how likely do you think it is that you will lose your job or be laid off?” (1–4 scale, 1 = not at all likely, 4 = very likely), GSS mean = 3.27, s.d. = .87, n = 2,198, NBER mean = 3.09, s.d. = .76, n = 38,510.

(p.397) High job security (GSS and NBER): “Thinking about the next twelve months, how likely do you think it is that you will lose your job or be laid off?” (coded 1 if “not at all likely” or “not very likely”, and 0 otherwise), GSS mean = .883, n = 1,190; NBER mean = .843, n = 38,510.

Not laid off in past year (GSS): “Were you laid off your main job at any time in the last year?” (0 = yes, 1 = no), mean = .920, n = 2,212.

See myself working here a long time (NBER): “Which ONE of the following statements best describes how you think of your current employer? 1 = I see myself working here for the foreseeable future (a long time), 0 = I do not see myself working here very long.” Mean = .817, n = 40,589.

Current job is part of long-time career (NBER): “Thinking about your current job (rather than your employer), do you look upon it as part of your long term career, or a position that is not part of your long term career?” (1 = yes, 0 = no) Mean = .762, n = 40,575.

11. Responding to Shirking

Potential employee actions against shirkers (GSS and NBER): “If you were to see a fellow employee not working as hard or well as he or she should, how likely would you be to:

  1. a) Talk directly to the employee

  2. b) Speak to your supervisor or manager

  3. c) Talk about it in a work group or team

  4. d) Do nothing”

  5. e) See distribution of answers in chapter 2, table 2.1.

Anti-shirking index: Answers to previous questions were coded on a 1–4 scale (1 = not at all likely, 4 = very likely), and scales were added for “talk directly to the employee,” “speak to your supervisor or manager,” and “do nothing” (reverse-scored)(3–12 scale). GSS alpha = .795, mean = 7.81, s.d. = 2.94, n = 2,115, NBER alpha = .69, mean = 7.57, s.d. = 2.49, n = 35,869.

Past employee actions against shirkers (NBER):

“Have you ever seen one of your fellow employees not working as hard or well as he or she should over an extended time period?” (0 = no, 1 = yes), Mean = .586, n = 32,010. If responded “yes,” then “What action, if any, did you take?

  1. a) Talk directly to the employee

  2. b) Speak to your supervisor or manager

  3. c) Talk about it in a work group or team

  4. d) Donothing”

See distribution of answers in chapter 2, table 2.2.

  • (p.398) “What was the outcome of your actions?
  • Employee not working well resented it
  • Other employees appreciated it
  • Supervisor appreciated it
  • Employee not working well improved
  • Other”

See distribution of answers in chapter 2, table 2.10.

Why people do or do not act against shirkers (NBER):

“Why might you be likely to do something when a fellow employee is not

working as hard or well as he or she should? (Mark all that apply)

  • I like helping others
  • Employee might help me in the future
  • Poor performance will cost me and other employees in bonus or stock value
  • Other employees appreciate it when someone steps forward
  • Want to keep work standards high
  • Employee's poor performance could affect my own job
  • Other (What?)

Why might you be likely to do nothing when a fellow employee is not working as hard or well as he or she should? (Mark all that apply)

  • Employee not working well would resent it
  • Other employees would react poorly
  • It's the supervisor's job, not mine
  • Some other employee will probably take action
  • Some other employee could take care of it
  • There's no financial benefit for me
  • Nothing in it for me personally
  • Other (What?)

See distribution of answers in chapter 2, table 2.9.

12 Innovation Outcomes

Culture for Innovation: Mean of following items, all measured on a 1–4 scale (1 = never or almost never, 2 = sometimes, 3 = often, 4 = always or almost always).

“How often do the following things occur in your facility?”

  1. a) “Ideas for developing innovative products and services are put forward.”

  2. b) “Meaningful time is invested in testing good ideas for innovative products and services.”

  3. (p.399) c) “Innovative ideas are carefully considered and fairly evaluated.”

  4. d) “Resources are made available to support and develop a good idea that could lead to an innovative product or service.”

  5. e) “People who have an innovative idea receive recognition for it.”

  6. f) “People who have an innovative idea receive financial rewards for it.”

  7. g) “My ideas for innovative products and services have been taken seriously.” Index mean = 2.87, s.d. = .626, n = 27,067, alpha = .86

Innovative Ideas: Mean of following items, all measured on a 1–4 scale (1 = not at all, 2 = very little, 3 = to some extent, 4 = to a great extent).

  1. a) “I would be willing to be more involved in efforts to develop innovative products and services.”

  2. b) “I have good ideas for innovative products or services.”

  3. c) “I have good ideas for improvements in existing products and services.”

Index mean = 2.74, s.d. = .731, n = 26,939, alpha = .83

13 Other Performance-Related Attitudes and Behavior

Not likely to search for new job (GSS): “How likely is it that you will decide to look hard for a job with another organization within the next twelve months?” (1–3 scale, Very likely/Somewhat likely/Not at all likely), mean = 2.37, s.d. = .79, n = 2,400.

Not likely to search for new job (NBER): “How likely is it that you will decide to look hard for a job with another organization within the next twelve months?” (1–4 scale, Already looking/Very likely/Somewhat likely/Not at all likely), mean = 3.42, s.d. = .83, n = 40,722.

Would turn down another job for more pay to stay with this company (NBER): “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘I would turn down another job for more pay in order to stay with this company.’” (1–5 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree), mean = 1.75, s.d. = 1.14, n =1,175.

Absenteeism (NBER): “About how many days have you been absent from work in the last six months (not counting vacation)?” mean = 1.77, s.d. = 7.66, n = 39,582.

Co-worker effort (GSS and NBER): “At your workplace, how hard would you say that people work?” (0–10 scale, 0 = not at all hard, 10 = very hard), GSS mean = 6.93, s.d. = 2.42, n = 2,386, NBER mean = 7.07, s.d. = 2.10, n = 40,738.

Proud to be working for employer (GSS): “I am proud to be working for my employer.” (1–4 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree), mean = 3.19, s.d. = .69, n = 2,401.

(p.400) Co-workers have enough interest in company issues to get involved (NBER): “People at [company] have too little interest in company-wide issues to get involved in them.” (1–7 scale, 1 = strongly agree, 7 = strongly disagree), mean = 4.22, s.d. = 1.60, n = 40,563.

Co-workers generally encourage each other to make extra effort (NBER): “At your workplace, would you say employees generally ENCOURAGE each other to make an extra effort on the job, DISCOURAGE each other from making an extra effort, or would you say they DON'T CARE how hard other employees work?” (–1 = discourage, 0 = don't care, 1 = encourage), mean = .74, s.d. = .48, n = 13,314.

Loyalty to company (NBER): “How much loyalty would you say you feel toward the company you work for as a whole?” (1–4 scale, No loyalty at all/Only a little/Some/A lot), mean = 3.34, s.d. = .80, n = 40,091.

Willing to work harder to help company (NBER): “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? ‘I am willing to work harder than I have to in order to help the company I work for succeed?’” (1–5 scale, 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree), mean = 4.02, s.d. = .90, n = 40,712.

Frequency of suggestions (NBER): “How often have you taken such ideas [for making your department or company more effective] to someone in the company in the past?” (1 = never, 2 = occasionally, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, 5 = daily), mean = 2.21, s.d. = .83, n = 31,141.

Summative outcomes variable (NBER): Additive index of “not likely to search for new job,” “loyalty to company,” “willing to work harder to help company,” “see myself working here a long time,” and “current job is part of long-time career,” minus 3 so scale = 0–12 (used in chapter 3 on risk). Mean = 9.49, s.d. = 2.26, n = 33,467.

14 Risk Aversion and Preferences Over Pay

Risk loving (NBER): “Some people like to take risks and others dislike taking risks. Where would you place yourself on a scale of how much you like or dislike taking risks, where 0 is hating to take any kind of risk and 10 is loving to take risks?” (In chapter 1, High risk aversion = 0 to 3 on this scale, medium risk aversion = 4 to 6, and low risk aversion = 7 to 10.) Mean = 5.62, s.d. = 2.43, n = 40,326.

Highest price paid for a bet (NBER): “You are offered a bet. You have a 10 percent chance of winning $1,000. Would you take the bet if it cost you: (mark highest price you would pay: $0, $1, $10, $20, $50, $100, $150).” Mean = $23.37, s.d. = 32.40, n = 34,751.

(p.401) Type of pay preferred (NBER): “If it was your choice and yours alone, would you prefer that you be paid: 0 = All fixed wage or salary, with no profit-sharing, company stock, or stock options; 1 = Paid in part with a variable amount dependent on company performance, through profit sharing, company stock, or stock options.” Mean = .784, n = 13,199.

Preference for new bonus plan (NBER): “If your employer announced a new compensation plan that would give up to 10 percent of pay in the form of bonuses, would you like this pay to be based on (mark all that apply): Your individual performance (mean = .769, n = 13,379), Your work group performance (mean = .371, n = 13,379), Company profits or performance. (Mean = .585, n = 13,379.)

Would vote to sell company (NBER): “If you owned stock in a company where you worked and an outside investor offered to buy the company for 50 percent more than the market value of the stock, would you vote to sell the company?” Mean = .409, n = 13,188.

Lower pay accepted for company-based bonus (NBER): “Imagine that you work for a company that offers you the opportunity to participate in a bonus program. Over time, the bonus will pay you on average 10 percent of your regular pay, but it could be higher or lower in any given year depending on the company's performance that year. How much less regular pay would you be willing to accept in order to get the possible performance bonus?” Mean = 3.31, s.d. = 3.56, n = 29,246.

Preference for next pay increase (NBER): “For your next pay increase, would you prefer that it come in the form of: 1 = All fixed wages, with no profit sharing, company stock, or stock options; 2 = Split between fixed wages and profit sharing, company stock, or stock options; 3 = All in the form of profit sharing, company stock, or stock options.” Mean = 1.86, s.d. = .62, n = 25,869. (p.402)