Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Ornaments of LifeCoevolution and Conservation in the Tropics$

Theodore H. Fleming and W. John Kress

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780226253404

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226023328.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use (for details see http://www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 30 March 2017

(p.495) Appendix 2 Overview of the Major Families of Plants containing Species That Are Pollinated or Dispersed by Birds or Mammals

(p.495) Appendix 2 Overview of the Major Families of Plants containing Species That Are Pollinated or Dispersed by Birds or Mammals

The Ornaments of Life
University of Chicago Press

Below are thumbnail sketches of the major families of plants providing food for nectar- and fruit-eating birds and mammals, as highlighted in table 1.3. These sketches indicate the major taxonomic subdivisions of each family, their species richness, their major flower or fruit adaptations, and some of the genera providing resources for vertebrates. Families were chosen based on their occurrence in the diets of more than one group of vertebrates. Plant information comes from APG III (APG 2009), Heywood et al. (2007) and Mabberley (1997). Dietary information comes from Buzato et al. (2000), Chapman et al. (2002), Dobat and Peikert-Holle (1985), Feinsinger (1976), Feinsinger et al. (1982), Galetti et al. (2000), Ganzhorn et al. (2004), Gautier-Hion et al. (1985), Gorchov et al. (1995), Kitamura et al. (2002), Kodric-Brown et al. (1984), Mickleburgh et al. (1992), Peres and Roosmalen (2002), Snow (1981), Snow and Snow (1980), Subramany and Radhamani (1993), and Terborgh (1983).

Major Families Providing Nectar and Pollen for Tropical Birds and Mammals

Agavaceae (Century Plant Family)

—Distributed in arid and semiarid habitats throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world, this family contains about 637 species, classified in 23 genera. Most species are succulents, featuring a basal rosette of lance-shaped leaves and a central inflorescence bearing flowers arranged in racemes or panicles. Paniculate members of the American genus Agave (with about 300 species) are common members of xeric habitats and are bat pollinated within tropical (p.496) latitudes. Hummingbirds (as well as bees) also pollinate various species of Agave. See an example in plate 9F.

Bignonlaceae (Catalpa Family)

—This cosmopolitan family containing about 800 species in 110 genera reaches its greatest diversity in South America. It contains many vines as well as shrubs and trees. Many species have large showy flowers that are often planted as ornamentals in tropical and subtropical countries. Vertebrate-pollinated genera include Crescentia, Distictis, Enallagma, Kigelia, Oryoxlum, and Stereospermum (bats), and Fridericia, Jacaranda, Spathodea, and Tecoma (birds). See an example in plate 9B.

Bombacaceae (Balsa Family)

—Closely related to the Malvaceae (mallow or cotton) and Sterculiaceae (chocolate) families (and included as a subfamily in Malvaceae in APG), this pantropical family of about 180 species (in 20 genera) of trees is most diverse in South America. Most species are deciduous and produce large, showy flowers during tropical dry seasons. Ecologically and/or economically important genera include Adansonia (baobabs), Ceiba (kapok or silk cotton), Durio (durian), and Ochroma (balsa). Species of these and other genera (e.g., Bombax, Chorisia, Pachira) are bat pollinated. Birds pollinate flowers of Sprirotheca. See an example in plate 9D.

Bromeliaceae (Pineapple Family)

—Except for one species (the West African Pitcairnia feliciana), this distinctive family of about 1,400 species (in 57 genera, classified in three subfamilies) occurs in the New World tropics and subtropics. Morphologically and physiologically adapted for xeric conditions, primitive members of this family are terrestrial with well-developed root systems, but most species are epiphytes. The bromeliads (subfamily Bromelioideae) include arboreal and terrestrial species that feature a leafy, water-filled tank and a central inflorescence with bright-colored flowers surrounded by equally colorful bracts. Many bromeliads are pollinated by hummingbirds (e.g., Aechmea, Bilbergia, Guzmania, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia, and Vriesia); a few (e.g., Puya, Vriesia) are pollinated by bats. See an example in plate 9E.

Cactaceae (Cactus Family)

—This family of spectacularly adapted xerophytes occurs in arid habitats throughout the New World. It contains about 2,000 species, classified in 87 genera occurring in three (or four) subfamilies (p.497) (Pereskioideae [leafy cacti], Opuntioideae [prickly pears and chollas], and Cactoideae [columnar cacti]). The latter two subfamilies contain species that are either hummingbird or bat pollinated. Tribe Pachycereeae, centered in Mexico, contains huge columnars that are the dominant plants in their habitats. Most members of this tribe, whose genera include Carnegiea (saguaros), Neobuxbaumia, Pachycereus (cardons), and Stenocereus (organ pipes), are bat pollinated. With 34 species, Pilosocereus (tribe Cereeae) is the ecological equivalent of Mexican Stenocereus in arid parts of eastern and northern South America and the Caribbean. Cactus fruits are many-seeded berries that are eaten (and whose seeds are dispersed) by birds and mammals.

Campanulaceae (Bellflower Family)

—This cosmopolitan (except for tropical Africa) family containing about 2,380 species in about 84 genera is mostly north temperate in distribution. Most species are herbs. Centropogon and Siphocampylus (hummingbirds) and Burmeistera (bats) are three vertebrate-pollinated Neotropical genera. See an example in plate 8C.

Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)

—Cosmopolitan in distribution, this family of mostly woody or herbaceous climbers contains about 1,600 species classified in about 57 genera. Many genera produce large, bell-shaped flowers. The large genus Ipomoea contains species that are pollinated by birds and bats.

Fabaceae (Pea Family)

—This enormous cosmopolitan family contains about 19,400 species in 730 genera. Its three subfamilies (Mimosoideae, Caesalpinioideae, and Papilionoideae) are sometimes treated as separate families. Mimosoid flowers contain many stamens that resemble a shaving brush; caesalpinioid flowers have large lateral wings and fewer stamens; papilionoid flowers are butterfly-shaped with two ventral petals that are fused to form a keel. Most members of the first two subfamilies are trees or shrubs, whereas most members of the latter are herbs. Bird-pollinated plants include Caesalpina, Delonix, Erythrina, Parkia, Peltophorum, and Sophora. Batpollinated mimosoid genera include Calliandra, Inga (also hummingbird pollinated), and Parkia; caesalpiniod genera include Bauhinia and Hymenaea; papilionoid genera include Castanospermum, Erythrina, and Mucuna. See an example in plate 8B.

(p.498) Gesneriaceae (African Violet Family)

—Pantropical in distribution (but uncommon in Africa), this family of mostly herbs and shrubs contains about 147 genera and over 3,870 species. Many Neotropical forms (e.g., in the genera Columnea, Asteranthera, Kohleria, Nematanthus, and Sinningia) are hummingbird-pollinated epiphytes. Some Neotropical forms (e.g., Drymonia, Gesnaria, and Rhytidophyllum) are bat pollinated. The Old World genus Aeschyanthus is bird pollinated.

Heliconiaceae (Heliconia Family)

—This family of about 200 species in a single genus is mostly Neotropical in distribution but also occurs in Southeast Asia. Flowers of these megaherbs are important nectar sources for hummingbirds (particularly hermits). See an example in plate 8D.

Malvaceae (Mallow Family)

—This cosmopolitan family contains over 1,000 species, classified in about 80 genera (not including Bombacaceae and Sterculiaceae); its growth habits include herbs, shrubs, and trees. Hummingbirds are major pollinators of Abutilon, Malvaviscus, and Pavonia. Bat-pollinated genera include Abutilon and Wercklea.

Musaceae (Banana Family)

—This small family of paleotropical herbaceous monocots contains about 35 species in two genera. Greatest diversity in the primarily bat-pollinated genus Musa occurs in Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Sunbirds and honeyeaters also pollinate Musas. See an example in plate 9C. Also see below.

Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus Family)

—Pantropical in distribution, this family of shrubs and trees contains about 4,625 species in 131 genera. The large genus Eucalyptus (with more than 700 species), which is pollinated by a diverse array of birds and bats in Australasia, is very important ecologically and economically. Syzygium is another speciose vertebrate-pollinated taxon.

Proteaceae (Banksia Family)

—This family of trees and shrubs contains over 1,600 species in 80 genera and occurs in strongly seasonal habitats on the southern continents. Greatest diversity occurs in South Africa where sunbirds (Nectariniidae) are important pollinators. Honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), the honey possum (Tarsipes), and Syconycteris bats are important (p.499) pollinators in Australia. Vertebrate-pollinated genera include Banskia, Grevillea, and Protea. See an example in plate 8A.

Rublaceae (Coffee Family)

—This is a large (about 10,000 species in 600 genera), cosmopolitan family of trees and shrubs in tropical and subtropical habitats; temperate species tend to be herbs. Hummingbird-pollinated genera include Hamelia, Isertia, Manettia, and Palicourea. See below. See an example in plate 8F.

Solanaceae (Potato Family)

—This cosmopolitan family of mostly herbs and a few shrubs and trees contains about 2,460 species in about 102 genera. Greatest diversity occurs in the Neotropics (about 40 genera) and Australia. Flower shape varies from round and flat (Solarium) to bell-shaped or tubular (Nicotiana). Bird-pollinated genera include Acnistis, Cestrum, and Nicotiana. Bat-pollinated genera include Markea and Trianaea.

Zinglberaceae (Ginger Family)

—This family of aromatic perennial understory herbs containing about 1,200 species in 50 genera is pantropical in distribution but has its greatest diversity in Indo-Malaysia. Important bird-pollinated genera include Amomum and Plagiostachys. Mammal-dispersed fruits occur in Aframomum. See an example in plate 12A.

Major Families Providing Fruit For Tropical Birds And Mammals

Anacardlaceae (Cashew Family)

—This pantropical family contains about 985 species in about 70 genera. Growth habit includes trees, shrubs, and vines. Fruits tend to be relatively large and are usually single-seeded drupes. Birds disperse fruits of Metopium, Rhus, Schinus, and Tapirira. Bats and primates are often dispersers of seeds produced by Anacardium, Mangifera, and Spondias. Primates disperse seeds of Antrocaryon, Choerospondias, Pseudospondias, and Tricoscypha.

Annonaceae (Soursop Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs contains about 2,200 species in 129 genera. Its greatest diversity occurs in Old World tropical forests. Its relatively large fruit are aggregates of berries that are eaten by birds, bats, squirrels, and primates. Common genera occurring in the diets of birds include Annona, Cananga, Cyathostemma, (p.500) Dasymaschalon, Desmos, Polyalthia, and Rollinia. Genera in the diets of mammals include Annona, Cananga, and Polyalthia (bats) and Alphonsia, Annona, Anonidium, Desmos, Guatteria, Oxandra, Polyalthia, Rollinia, Uvaria, Uvariopsis, and Xylopia (primates).

Apocynaceae (Oleander Family)

—Members of this pantropical family, which contains about 4,550 species in 415 genera, are mostly trees, shrubs, and lianas. Fruits tend to occur in pairs. Bird-dispersed genera include Alstonia, Rauvolfia, Stemmadenia, and Tabernaemontana. Genera in the diets of bats include Cerbera, Ochrosia, and Rauvolfia. Primates eat fruits of Bonafousia, Cylindropsis, Funtumia, Landolphia, and Rauvolfia

Araceae (Aroids)

—This cosmopolitan family of fleshy herbaceous monocots includes about 4,025 species in 106 genera. Fruits are berries containing one to many seeds. Bird-dispersed genera include Anthurium, Epiphyllum, Monstera, and Philodendron. Bat-dispersed genera include Anthurium and Philodendron. Primates eat fruits of Anthurium, Heteropsis, and Syngonium.

Arecaceae (Palm Family)

—This archetypical tropical family contains about 2,361 species in 189 genera. Palms are far more diverse in the Neotropics (about 64 genera and 857 species) and Southeast Asia (about 97 genera and 1,385 species) than Africa (about 16 genera and 116 species). Fruits are one-seeded berries or drupes. Many genera are dispersed by birds and mammals, including squirrels and other rodents (e.g., Echimyidae and Dasyproctidae in the New World).

Burseraceae (Gumbo Limbo Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs contains about 550 species in 18 genera. It is closely related to the Anacardiaceae; both families contain resin ducts in many of their tissues. The fruit is a drupe or a capsule. Bird-dispersed genera include Canarium, Commiphora, Dacroydes, Protium, Santiria, and Trattinickia. Mammal-dispersed genera include Bursera, Canarium, Dacroydes, Protium, Santiria, and Tetragastris.

Celastraceae (Spindle Tree Family)

—This family has a cosmopolitan distribution, but most species occur in the tropics or subtropics. The 1,300 (p.501) species of trees and shrubs are classified in about 89 genera. Fleshy-fruited taxa produce berries or drupes. Bird-dispersed genera include Bhesa, Cassine, Celastrus, Elaeodendron, and Maytenus; mammal-dispersed genera include Cassine (bats) and Maytenus (primates).

Chrysobalanaceae (Cocoplum Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs contains about 460 species in 17 genera. Fruits are either dry or fleshy drupes. Birds and bats eat the fruit of Parinari; other fruit eaten by mammals include Couepia, Hirtella, Licania, and Parinari (primates).

Cluslaceae (Mangosteen Family)

—This cosmopolitan family of trees and shrubs contains about 595 species in 14 genera. Fruit types include capsules as well as berry- or drupelike fruits. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Calophyllum (birds, bats, and primates), Clusia (birds), Garcinia (bats, primates), Mammea (bats, primates), Rheedia (primates), Symphonia (primates), and Vismia (birds, bats).

Combretaceae (Terminalia Family)

—This pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and lianas contains about 500 species in 20 genera. Fruits of many forest species tend to be fleshy and are dispersed by birds (Terminalia) or bats and primates (Terminalia, others). Flowers of Combretum are pollinated by hummingbirds and primates in the New World tropics.

Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)

—As mentioned above, some flowers of this family are vertebrate-pollinated. A few genera produce fleshy fruits that are eaten by birds (Erycibe) and primates (Dicranostyles, Erycibe, Maripa).

Dilleniaceae (Dillenias)

—Pantropical in distribution (but with only one genus in Africa), this family of trees, shrubs, and lianas contains about 300 species in 12 genera. Its berry-like fruit contain arillate seeds that are eaten by birds (e.g., Davilla, Hibbertia, Lecistema) and primates (Doliocarpus).

Ebenaceae (Ebony Family)

—Greatest diversity of this family of small trees (about 548 species in four genera of which Diospyros contains nearly all of the species) is concentrated in Southeast Asia and Africa, but it also (p.502) occurs in the New World tropics and subtropics. Its fruits are berries that are eaten by birds, bats, and primates (Diospyros).

Euphorblaceae (Spurge Family)

—This cosmopolitan family contains over 5,970 species in about 220 genera. Its greatest concentration of species occurs in South America and tropical Asia. Fruits are either nonfleshy schizocarps or fleshy drupes. Genera dispersed by vertebrates include Alchornea, Antidesma, Bridelia, Drypetes, Macaranga, Sapium, and Uapaca (birds), Balakata, Drypetes, Omphalea, and Uapaca (primates), and Bridelia, Sapium, and Uapaca (bats and primates).

Flacourtiaceae-Now Part of Salicaceae (West Indian Boxwood Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs contains about 1,250 species in 89 genera. Fruit types are varied and include berries and drupes. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Casearia (birds, primates), Flacourtia and Hasseltia (birds), and Lindackeria, Ludia, and Mayna (primates).

Icacinaceae (No Common Family Name)

—With greatest diversity concentrated in Malaysia, this pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and lianas contains about 149 species in 24 genera. Fruits are usually drupes. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Apodytes, Citronella, and Gomphandra (birds) and Calatola, Discophera, and Leretia (primates).

Lauraceae (Avocado Family)

—Primarily tropical and subtropical in distribution, this family of about 2,500 species in 50 genera reaches its greatest diversity in lowland and montane rain forests of the Neotropics and Southeast Asia. Most species are trees or shrubs, and fruits are berry-or drupelike. Many fruits have lipid-rich pulp. Birds are the main disperses of seeds of such genera as Beilschmiedia, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Litsea, Ocotea, and Persea. Primates eat fruits of Beilschmiedia, Cinnamomum, Cryptocarya, Licaria, Nectandra, and Ocotea. See an example in plate 10A.

Fabaceae (Pea Family)

—Although most fruits of this huge family are woody pods (legumes) with dry seeds, some species produce pulp-covered seeds that attract vertebrate frugivores. Genera that are vertebrate-dispersed include Acacia (birds, bats), Cassia (primates), Inga (birds, primates), Lecointea (p.503) (primates), Parkia (birds), Peltogyne (primates), and Tamarindus (bats). See an example in plate 11A.

Melastomataceae (Melastome Family)

—Pantropical in distribution, this family of about 5,005 species in 188 genera reaches its greatest diversity in the Neotropics. Most species are shrubs or small trees. Fruits are many-seeded berries in most genera. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Clidemia (birds, bats, primates), Conostegia (birds), Leandra (birds), Melastoma (birds, bats), Memecylon (birds, primates), Miconia (birds, primates), and Mouriri (primates).

Meliaceae (Mahogany Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs contains about 621 species in 52 genera. Among its various fruit types are berries and drupes. Seeds produced by members of subfamily Meliodeae have a fleshy aril or fleshy sarcotesta; those of subfamily Swieteniodeae are dry and winged. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Aglaia (birds), Azadirachta (bats), Chisocheton (birds?), Dysoxylum (birds, bats), Guarea (birds, primates), Melia (birds), and Trichilia (birds, bats, and primates).

Menispermaceae (Curare Family)

—Most members of this pantropical family (about 420 species in 70 genera) are lianas. Fruits are drupelike. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Cissampelos, Diploclisia, Fibraurea, Hyserpa, and Tinospora (birds) and Anomospermum, Chondrodendron, Curarea, Diploclisia, and Odontocarya (primates).

Moraceae (Fig Family)

—This pantropical family of ecologically important trees and shrubs contains about 1,100 species in 38 genera; the genus Ficus contains at least 700 species. Infructescences are variable in form but are invariably fleshy; they are highly sought after by birds and mammals. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Artocarpus (birds and mammals), Brosimum (birds, bats, and primates), Castilloa (birds), Chlorophora (birds and mammals), Ficus (birds and mammals), Maclura (birds), Musanga (primates), Pourouma (primates), Pseudomelia (primates), and Trophis (birds, primates). See examples in plate 13A, C.

Myristicaceae (Nutmeg Family)

—This family of trees occurs throughout the tropics and contains about 475 species in 20 genera. Greatest diversity occurs in New Guinea and the Amazon. The fruit is a dehiscent berry (p.504) with an arillate seed. Old World Myristica and New World Virola are primarily bird dispersed. Bats eat Pycnanthus fruit. Primates eat fruits of Coelocaryon, Osteophloem, Otoba, and Pycnanthus. See an example in plate 10C.

Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus Family)

—Fruits of this family, which is one of the uncommon examples of a family whose flowers are often vertebrate pollinated and whose fruits are often vertebrate dispersed, include berries, drupes, capsules, and nuts. Fleshy fruits occur in subfamily Myrtoideae; dry fruits occur in subfamily Leptospermoideae. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Acmena (birds), Ardisia (birds, primates), Calyptranthes (primates), Eugenia (birds, bats, and primates), Myrcia (birds, primates), Psidium (birds, bats), and Syzygium (birds, bats).

Olacaceae (African Walnut Family)

—This family of about 103 species in 14 genera is pantropical, but most species occur in the Old World. Fruits are drupes that are dispersed by birds (Heisteria) and primates (Heisteria, Minquartia, Ptychopetalum, and Strombosia).

Pandanaceae (Screw Pine Family)

—Restricted to coastal or marshy areas of the Old World tropics and subtropics, this family of trees, shrubs, and climbers contains about 885 species in four genera. Fruits are berries or multilocular drupes. Bats and primates are the major vertebrate seed dispersers.

Piperaceae (Black Pepper Family)

—This pantropical family (about 3,600 species in five genera) of primitive angiosperms reaches its greatest diversity in the Neotropics, which has about 2,000 species of Piper. Most Neotropical forms are shrubs or treelets; most Old World forms are vines. The spikelike infructescences containing many small drupes are dispersed primarily by bats in the New World and by birds in the Old World. See an example in plate 13D.

Rosaceae (Rose Family)

—This cosmopolitan family of about 2,830 species, classified in 95 genera, reaches its greatest diversity in north temperate regions. All plant growth forms except aquatics are found in this family. Fruit types are diverse and have been used to delimit natural groups. Fleshy fruited taxa occur in three subfamilies: Maloideae, Prunoideae, and Rosoideae. (p.505) Birds are major dispersers of genera such as Hiratella, Prunus, and Rubus. Bats eat fruit of Eriobotrya and Prunus.

Rubiaceae (Coffee Family)

—This large pantropical family contains both vertebrate-pollinated flowers and vertebrate-dispersed seeds. Fruit types are diverse and include berries, drupes, and schizocarps. Birds are important dispersers of many genera of understory shrubs (e.g., Canthium, Hamelia, Henrietta, Morinda, Palicourea, and Psychotria). Bats eat fruit of Guettarda, Morinda, Nauclea, and Randia. Primates eat fruit of Alibertia, Anthocephalis, Canthium, Genipa, Nauclea, and Randia.

Rutaceae (Citrus Family)

—This pantropical family of trees and shrubs, which contains about 1,815 species in 161 genera, reaches its greatest diversity in Australia and South Africa. Fruits are berries. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Acronychia, Clausena, Fagara, Teclea, and Zanthoxylum (birds) and Fagara, Teclea, and Toddalia (primates). Bats also eat Acronychia fruit.

Sapindaceae (Akee Family)

—Distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, this family contains about 1,580 species in 135 genera. It contains many species of lianas as well as trees and shrubs. Fruit types include berries, drupes, and schizocarps with arillate seeds. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Allophyllus, Cupania, Sapindus, and Tristriopsis (birds); Cupaniopsis, Dimocarpus, and Nephelium (bats), and Allophyllus, Dimocarpus, Nephelium, Pancovia, Paullinia, and Tinopsis (primates).

Sapotaceae (Chicle Family)

—This pantropical family of trees contains about 975 species in up to 53 genera. Its fruit are berries. Different genera are dispersed by birds (e.g., Bumelia, Chrysophyllum, Manilkara, Mimusops, Sideroxylon), bats (Chrysophyllum, Manilkara, Mimusops, Planchonella, and Sideroxylon), and primates (Chrysophyllum, Gambeya, Manilkara, Mimusops, and Pouteria).

Simaroubaceae (Quassia Family)

—Tropical and subtropical in distribution, this relatively small family of trees and shrubs contains about 95 species in 19 genera. Fruits include samaras, capsules, and schizocarps. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Eurycoma (birds), Picramnia (birds, primates), Odyendea (birds), and Simarouba (primates).

(p.506) Solanaceae (Potato Family)

—Although mainly a family of herbaceous plants, the berries of a few species of shrubs and trees are dispersed by birds (Acnistus, Capsicum, Cestrum, Lycium, and Solanum) and bats (Solanum and Cestrum). See an example in plate 10B.

Sterculiaceae-Now Part of Malvaceae (Chocolate Family)

—This pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and lianas contains about 700 species, classified in 60 genera. It is closely related to (and now included in) Malvaceae, along with Bombacaeae. Most taxa produce dry, capsular fruits, but a few produce berry-like, dehiscent fruit. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Guazuma (birds, primates), Sterculia (birds, primates), and Theobroma (primates).

Tiliaceae (Linden Family)

—This relatively small family (about 400 species in 41 genera) of trees and shrubs has a cosmopolitan distribution. Tropical genera that are vertebrate dispersed include Apeiba (primates) and Grewia (birds, primates).

Ulmaceae-many Taxanowin Cannabaceae (Hackberry Family)

—This cosmopolitan family of trees and shrubs contains about 2,000 species in 16 genera. Its diverse fruits include nuts, samaras, and drupes. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Ampelocera (primates), Celtis (birds, bats, and primates), Gironniera (birds), and Trema (birds).

Urticaceae (Nettle Family)

—This cosmopolitan family (which here includes Cecropiaceae) contains diverse growth habits among its 2,625 species (in about 54 genera). Some taxa produce berry-like or otherwise fleshy infructescences. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Cecropia (eaten by many volant or arboreal birds and mammals), Dendrocnide (birds, bats), Musanga (birds, bats), and Urera (birds, primates).

Verbenaceae (Teak Family)

—This pantropical family of diverse growth habits contains over 1,100 species in about 30 genera. The most common fruit type is a drupe. Vertebrate-dispersed genera include Duranta, Gmelina, Lantana, Lippia, and Vitex (birds), Faradaya, Premna, and Vitex (bats), and Lanatana and Vitex (primates).