Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Knowledge in the Time of CholeraThe Struggle over American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century$

Owen Whooley

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780226017464

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226017778.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use (for details see http://www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 20 November 2017

(p.267) Reference List

(p.267) Reference List

Source:
Knowledge in the Time of Cholera
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

Primary Sources

“An Act.” March 4, 1837. Southern Banner, 1.

“Best Preparation for the Cholera.” 1849. New York Evangelist 20, no. 24: 94.

“The Cholera at Pittsburgh.” 1854. German Reformed Messenger 20, no. 4: 4166.

“Cholera Incident.” 1849. Liberator 19, no. 31: 124.

“Cholera Voice.” 1832. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 9: 148.

“A City in Mourning.” 1849. Christian Advocate Journal 24, no. 30: 119.

“Death of Doctor Thomas Spencer.” June 6, 1857. Daily Courier, 6.

“Malt Liquors and the Cholera.” 1849. National Era 3, no. 32: 125.

“Rockefeller’s Institution for Medical Research.” 1901. Medical Record, 907. Rockefeller Institute Archives, Record Group 2, Box 52, Folder 539.

“A Sad Story—Effect of the Will.” 1849. Liberator 19, no. 31: 124.

“Street Commissioners to the Cholera.” November 9, 1865. Nation, 583–584.

C. R. Agnew 1874. “Presidential Opening Remarks.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1873–1874, 4–47. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

J. A. Allen September 5, 1832. “Epidemics: Remarks on the Etiology and Character of Epidemics.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 7, no. 4: 53–55.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1850. “Report of the Committee on Practical Medicine and Epidemics.” Transactions of the American Medical Association, 107–130. Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1851. Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association. Chicago: American Medical Association Press.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1892a. Protective Vaccination against Cholera.” Journal of the American MedicalAssociation 19, no. 18: 529–530.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1892b. “Laboratory Work in Medical Schools.” Journal of the American Medical Association 19, no. 4: 110–111.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1892c. “Quarantine.” Journal of the American Medical Association 19, no. 15: 442–443.

AMA (American Medical Association). 1892d. “Results of Researches in Bacteriology.” Journal of the American MedicalAssociation 19, no. 26: 757.

American Medical Times. 1860. “Our Sanitary Defenses.” American Medical Times 1: 46–47.

(p.268) American Medical Times. 1862. “Relation of the Sanitary Condition of New York to the Country.” American Medical Times 4: 98–99.

American Medical Times. 1863. “The Week.” American Medical Times 6: 59.

Dudley Atkins. 1832. Reports of Hospital Physicians and Other Documents in Relation to the Epidemic Cholera of 1832. New York: G. and C. and H. Carvill.

Fordyce Barker. 1860. “Annual Address.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1860, 5–10. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

Elisha Bartlett. 1844. An Essay on the Philosophy of Medical Science. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard.

Horatio Bartley. 1832. Illustrations of Cholera Asphyxia in Its Different Stages, Selected from Cases Treated at the Cholera Hospital, Rivington Street. New York: S. H. Jackson.

Joseph Bates. 1849. “The Resources of the Medical Profession.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1847, 1848, 1849, 17–34. Albany, NY: J. Munsell.

Henry Jacob Bigelow. 1871. Medical Education in America: Being the Annual Address Read before the Massachusetts Medical Society, June 7, 1871. Cambridge, MA: Welch, Bigelow.

Frank Seaver Billings. 1885. “Cultivations of the Cholera Bacillus and of Other Allied Microorganisms.” Boston Medical and Surigical Journal 112, no. 20: 476.

John S. Billings 1879. “The Study of Sanitary Science.” Plumber and Sanitary Engineer 2, no. 5: 125.

D. P. Bissell 1864. “Annual Address.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 3–23. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

E. Blake 1894 “Cholera: Its Prevention and Treatment.” Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy 4, no. 7: 880–889.

Thomas W. Blatchford 1852. “Homeopathy Illustrated.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1850, 1851, 1852, 69–141. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons, Public Printers.

P. Bossey 1832. “Comparative Treatment of Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 7, no. 16: 245–247.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). August 16, 1831a. “The Nature and Cure of the Indian Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 5, no. 1: 5–17.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). October 25, 1831b. “The Cholera and Its Treatment.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 5, no. 12: 170–174.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). May 2, 1832a. “The Treatment of Epidemic Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 12: 189–191.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). May 30, 1832b. “The Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 16: 254–255.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). July 4, 1832c. “Massachusetts Report on Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 21: 337–340.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). July 11, 1832d. “Cholera at New York.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 22: 353–356.

(p.269) Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). November 28, 1832e. “The March of Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 7, no. 16: 253–254.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). June 5, 1833a. “After Thoughts on Malignant Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 8, no. 17: 271–273.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). June 26, 1833b. “Remarks on Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 8, no. 20: 314–316.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). August 12, 1835. “Remarks on Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 13, no. 1: 13–14.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). May 11, 1842. “Case of Death from Thomsonism.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 26, no. 14: 216–218.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). September, 12, 1849. “Cholera—Its Course and Ravages.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 41, no. 6: 123–124.

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (BMSJ). January 15, 1885. “Demonstration of Koch’s Bacilli Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 111, no. 25: 108.

Boston Thomsonian and Lady’s Companion (BTLC). 1840. “Regular Quackery.” Boston Thomsonian and Lady’s Companion 6, no. 22: 338–340.

Boston Thomsonian and Lady’s Companion (BTLC). 1841. “Simplicity.” Boston Thomsonian and Lady’s Companion 7, no. 8: 114.

Boston Thomsonian Manual. 1841. “Thomsonism.” Boston Thomsonian Manual 7, no. 7: 98.

B.F. Bowers 1871. “Anniversary Address.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York, 1871, 101–126. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

B.F. Bowers 1868. “Opposition to Homeopathy in New York.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1868, 393–412. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

T. C. Brinsmade 1859. “Annual Address before the Medical Society and Members of the Legislature.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1859, 5–30. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

Henry Bronson. 1832. “Remarks on the Chlorides and Chlorine.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 7, no. 6: 85–95.

S. W. Butler, R. J. Levis, and L. C. Butler. 1861. “Mr. Fergusson Holding the Professional Intercourse with Homeopaths.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 62, no. 2: 496–497.

Andrew Carnegie. 1889. The Gospel of Wealth. London: F. C. Hagen.

Charles V. Chapin 1934a. “Justifiable Measures for the Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases.” In The Papers of Charles V. Chapin, 76–91. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.

Charles V. Chapin 1934b. “Effective Lines of Health Work.” In The Papers of Charles V. Chapin, 37–45. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.

Charles V. Chapin 1934c. “Dirt, Disease, and the Health Officer.” In The Papers of Charles V. Chapin, 20–27. New York The Commonwealth Fund.

N. Chapman 1848. “Address.” Transactions of the American Medical Association, vol. 1, 7–8. Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins.

(p.270) Citizens’ Association of New York. 1866. Report of the Council of Hygiene and Public Health of the Citizens’ Association of New York upon the Sanitary Condition of the City. New York: Appleton.

A. Clark 1853. “Annual Address Delivered before NY State Medical Society and Members of the Legislature.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1853, 271–295. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

Charles Clarke. 1846. “On Cholera, Its Nature and Treatment.” Boston Medical Surgical Journal 35, no. 1: 9–11.

B. Colby 1839. “Thomsonian Lecture.” Boston Thomsonian and Lady’s Companion 6, no. 1: 1–2.

Joseph Comstock. 1832. “The Causes of Epidemics.” Boston Medical Surgical Journal 7, no. 10: 149–159.

Benjamin F. Cornell 1868. “Presidential Address.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1868, 3–4. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Edward Deloney. 1835. “Quackery.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 7, no. 7: 111–112.

Alexis de Tocqueville. 2000. Democracy in America. New York: Perennial Classics.

Robert Dick. 1849. “A Few Observations on Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 41, no. 3: 1–4.

Charles Dickens. 2000. American Notes for General Circulation 1842. Edited by P. Ingham. London: Penguin Press.

S. H. Dickson 1849. “On the Progress of Asiatic Cholera during the Years, 1844–46– 47–48.” New York Journal of Medicine 2, no. 2: 9–20.

Archibald Dixon. 1885. “Progress in Medicine.” Journal of the American Medical Association 5, no. 15: 416–417.

Charles W. Eliot 1896. “The Medical Education of the Future.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1896, 87–104. Philadelphia: Dornan Printer.

R. H. Fitz 1885a. “The Recent Investigations concerning the Etiology of Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 112, no. 8: 169–172.

R. H. Fitz 1885b. “The Recent Investigations concerning the Etiology of Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 112, no. 9: 196–199.

Abraham Flexner. 1910. The Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada. New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Learning.

Abraham Flexner, and James Thomas Flexner. 1941. William Henry Welch and the Heroic Age of American Medicine. New York: The Viking Press.

Austin Flint. 1884. “Parasitic Doctrine of Epidemic Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 111, no. 18: 420–423.

Frederick T. Gates 1911a. “Letter to John Rockefeller, Sr. January 17, 1911.” Frederick T. Gates Papers. Rockefeller Institute Archives Record Group FTG, Box 2, Folder 33.

Frederick T. Gates 1911b. “Letter to Starr Murphy to Rockefeller, May 16, 1911.” John D. Rockefeller, (p.271) Senior Correspondence. Rockefeller Institute Archives Record Group 2, Box 29, Folder 228.

Frederick T. Gates 1964. “Recollections of Frederick T. Gates on the Origin of the Institute.” In A History of the Rockefeller Institute, edited by George W. Corner, 575–584. New York: Rockefeller Institute Press.

J. B. Grabill 1857. Petition of Physicians and Surgeons to the Legislature of this State in Favor of Introducing the Homeopathic System of Medical Treatment into the Insane Asylums, Hospitals, Prisons and Public Institutions of the State. Union City, IN: Times New and Job Printing Office.

John H. Griscom 1857. “Improvements of the Public Health, and the Establishment of a Sanitary Police in the City of New York.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1855, 1856, 1857, 107–123. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

William Halley. 1887. “The Plumbers’ Plea for Representation on Boards of Health.” Sanitarian 18, no. 208: 241–246.

Frank H. Hamilton 1884. “The Asiatic Cholera at Suspension Bridge in 1854 and Its Lessons—What We Know about Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 111, no. 21: 491–493.

S. D. Hand 1874. “Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1874, 1–28. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Elisha Harris. 1869. “Report on Sanitary Police Applied to the Prevention and Control of Epidemic Cholera.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 3, 102–123. New York: William Wood.

E. A. Hildreth 1868. “Report on the Epidemic Diseases of West Virginia.” Transactions of the American Medical Association 14: 211–237.

Frederick Hiller. 1867. Medical Truth and Light for the Million. Virginia, NV: Territorial Enterprise Book and Job Printing.

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 1842. Homeopathy and Its Kindred Delusions: Two Lectures Delivered before the Boston Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Boston: William D. Ticknor.

Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1866a. “Annual Meeting of the Kings County Homeopathic Medical Society.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1866, 241–251. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1866b. “Fourth Annual Report.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1866, 131–132. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1866c. “Homeopathy and the Board of Health.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1866, 320–323. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1868. “Seventeenth Annual Meeting.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1868, 3–28. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

(p.272) Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1874. “Resolution.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1874, 27–28. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York. 1910. “Resolution Regarding the Flexner Report.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1910, 215. Rochester, NY: Rochester Democratic and Chronicle.

Worthington Hooker. 1849. Physician and Patient. New York: Arno Press.

Worthington Hooker. 1852. Homeopathy: An Examination of Its Doctrines and Evidences. New York: Charles Scribner.

Moore Hott. March 7, 1832. “Remarks on Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 4: 59–64.

Lawrence Hull. 1840. “Annual Address Delivered before the Medical Society of the State of New York, Feb. 6, 1839.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1838, 1839, 1840, 59–70. Albany, NY: J. Munsell.

Thomas Hun. 1863. “Influence of the Progress of Medical Science over Medical Art.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1863, 3–36. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

J. C. Hutchinson 1867. “Annual Address.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1867, 53–69. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

Abraham Jacobi. 1885. “Inaugural Address.” Medical Recorder 26: 169–174.

Abraham Jacobi. 1897. “Hygiene and Its Accessories.” Sanitarian 38, no. 336: 385–412.

Daniel T. Jones 1861. “Annual Address before Medical Society and State Legislature.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1861, 5–15. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

B. F. Joslin 1852. “Address.” Proceedings of the American Institute of Homeopathy, vols. 4–9, 9–24. New York: Charles G. Dean.

Edwin Merrill Kellogg. 1872. Statistics of the Comparative Mortality of New York City, during the Years 1870 and 1871. New York: Stearns and Beale.

Dan King. 1849. “The Evils of Quackery and Its Remedies.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 40, no. 19: 370–376.

D. N. Kinsman 1886. “Etiology and Prophylaxis of Cholera Asiatica.” Sanitarian 161, no. 99: 525–538.

J. Knight 1846. “An Address to the Medical Profession, in Relation to the Objects of the National Medical Association by the Committee Appointed for that Purpose.” The Medical Examiner, vol. 2, 748–751. Philadelphia, PA: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Robert Lewins. 1832. “Injection of Saline into the Veins.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 6, no. 24: 373–375.

Arthur Lippe. 1865. Who Is a Homeopathician? Philadelphia: King and Baird Printers.

Joseph Lister. 1867. “On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery.” British Medical Journal 2, no. 351: 246–248.

Alfred L. Loomis 1888a. “Address in Practice of Medicine, Materia Medica, and Physiology.” Transactions of the American Medical Association, vol. 29, 119–137. Philadelphia: Collins Printer.

Alfred L. Loomis 1888b. “Anniversary Address.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1888, 52–71. Syracuse, NY: The Syracuse Journal Co.

(p.273) John S. Lynde 1848. “Who Shall Decide When Doctors Disagree?” Maine Farmer 16, no. 49: 2.

William H. Macneven 1849. “Remarks on the Mode by Which Cholera Is Propa-gated.” New York Journal of Medicine 2, no. 2: 186–209.

D. P. Maddux 1892. Significance of Bacteriological Discoveries to the Homeopathic Method of Treatment. Reprinted in Hahnemannian Monthly.

M. Magendie 1832. “Report from M. Magendie on His Trip to Sunderland, England.” Cholera Gazette 1, no. 1: 6.

H. C. Markham 1888, “State Regulation of the Practice of Medicine—Its Value and Importance.” Journal of the American Medical Association 10, no. 1: 5–7.

James Henderson McClelland. 1908. Homeopathy, A System of Rational Therapeutics: Its Right to Survive. Scranton: Homeopathic Medical Society of Pennsylvania.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1865. “Letter from Toger.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 12, no. 1: 214–216.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1866a. “The Metropolitan Board of Health and the Academy of Medicine; A Point of Ethics.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 14, no. 24: 474–477.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1866b. “Homeopathy and Public Hygiene.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 14, no. 5: 95–96.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1867. “Cholera and Its Prevention.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 17, no. 1: 16–17.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1892. “Recent Investigations regarding the Aetiology and Toxicology of Asiatic Cholera.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 66, no. 1: 459–462.

Medical and Surgical Reporter. 1893. “Cholera This Season.” Medical and Surgical Reporter 68, no. 11: 421–422.

Medical Society of the State of New York. 1867a. “Report.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1867, 65–69 Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

Medical Society of the State of New York. 1867b. “Sixtieth Annual Meeting.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1867, 4–43. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

Medical Society of the State of New York. 1870. Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1870. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

Metcalf1869. “Discussion on Epidemic Cholera.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 3, no. 1: 1–25.

Metropolitan Board of Health. 1866. Annual Report of the Metropolitan Board of Health. Vol. 1. New York: C. S. Westcott Union Printing House.

Metropolitan Board of Health. 1867. Annual Report of the Metropolitan Board of Health. Vol. 2. New York: Union Printing House.

T. Clarke Miller. 1887. “The Relation of the Physician to Sanitation.” Sanitarian 19, no. 213: 107–144.

James M’Naughton. 1852. “Annual Address Delivered before the Albany County Medical Society.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1850, 1851, 1852, 126–143. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons Public Printers.

(p.274) E. A. Munger 1865. “Presidential Address.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1865, 22–25. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Nation. 1865. “The Street Commissioners to the Cholera.” Nation 1, no. 19: 583–584.

Nation. 1866. “New York and the Cholera.” Nation 2, no. 28: 40–41.

James A. Newman 1856. “Report on the Sanitary Police of Cities.” Transactions of the American Medical Association, vol. 9, 429–482. Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins.

New York Assembly Select Committee on Petitions. 1842. “Report of the Select Committee on Sundry Petitions for a Law to Enable Thomsonian Physicians to Collect Pay for Their Services, &c.” Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York 2, no. 142: 1–4.

New York Assembly Select Committee on Petitions. 1843. “Report of the Select Committee on Petitions, for the Repeal of Laws Restricting Medical Practice.” Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York 3, no. 62: 1–8.

New York Assembly Select Committee on Petitions. 1844. “Report of the Select Committee on Petitions, Praying for the Repeal of Laws Restricting Medical Practice.” Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York 4, no. 60: 1–4.

New York Journal of Medicine. 1844a. “Laws of New York Relative to the Practice of Physic and Surgery.” New York Journal of Medicine 3, no. 1: 281–287.

New York Journal of Medicine. 1844b. “Nature and History of Vital Statistics.” New York Journal of Medicine 1, no. 3: 320–334.

New York Journal of Medicine. 1849a. “Analysis of the Treatment of Cholera by Several Writers.” New York Journal of Medicine 2, no. 3: 73–78.

New York Journal of Medicine. 1849b. “The Progress of Cholera in America.” New York Journal of Medicine 2, no. 2: 97–99.

New York Senate Select Committee on Petitions. 1844. “Report of the Select Committee on Petitions for the Repeal of Laws Restricting Medical Practice.” Documents of the Senate of the State of New York 1, no. 31: 1–4.

New York Times. June 25, 1856. “Killing Off Our Children—By Authority.” New York Times, 3.

New York Times. April 9, 1866. “The Approach of Cholera.” New York Times, 4.

New York Times. July 1, 1866. “The Academy of Medicine and the Cholera.” New York Times, 4.

New York Times. July 19, 1866. “The Public Health.” New York Times, 2.

New York Times. February 20, 1867. “Medical Rivalries and Claims.” New York Times, 4

New York Times. March 31, 1867. “Cholera in New-York in 1866.” New York Times, 3.

New York Times. October 28, 1883. “Progress of the Germ Theory.” New York Times, 8.

New York Times. September 9, 1892. “The Record Not So Good.” New York Times, 1.

NYAM (New York Academy of Medicine). 1862. “Resolution on the Inclusion of Homeopaths in the Union Army,. Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1862, 435. Albany, NY: Charles van Benthuysen.

NYAM (New York Academy of Medicine). April, 28, 1866. “Minutes of the New York Academy of Medicine.” New York Academy of Medicine Archives.

(p.275) NYAM (New York Academy of Medicine). 1871. “Discussion on Cholera.” Transactions of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 22, 1–47. New York: Bailliere Brothers.

Francis H. Orme 1868. Homeopathy—What Is It? Detroit, MI: E. A. Lodge.

William Osler. 1895. The Principles and Practice of Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: D. Appleton.

Fred Page. 1849. “Remarks on Epidemic Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 40, no. 22: 1–11.

Horace Paine. 1866. “Epidemic Cholera.” Proceedings of the American Institute of Homeopathy, vol. 19, 126–144. Boston: Rand and Avery.

John Pintard 1832. Letters from John Pintard to His Daughter Eliza Noel Pintard Davidson. Vol. 4, 1832–1833. New York: J. J. Little and Ives.

Plumber and Sanitary Engineer. 1879. “Sanitary Science.” Plumber and Sanitary Engineer 2, no. 4: 94.

T. Mitchell Prudden. 1889. The Story of Bacteria. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

J. V. Quackenbush 1869. “Introductory Remarks.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 4–5. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

David Meredith Reese. 1833. A Plain and Practical Treatise on the Epidemic Cholera, as It Prevailed in the City of New York, in the summer of 1832. New York: Conner and Cooke.

John O. Roe 1899. “The Relation of Medicine to Civilization.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, vol. 51, 44–61. Philadelphia: Dornan Printer.

John Rose. October 1838. “Carroll County Thomsonian Emancipation Candi-dates.” Lobelia Advocate 1: 10.

Sanitarian. 1873. “Cholera.” Sanitarian 1, no. 5: 221–223.

Sanitarian. 1884. “Prevention and Restriction of Cholera.” Sanitarian 13, no. 177: 107–113.

L. A. Sayre 1870. “Minutes of the 63rd Annual Meeting.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1870, 6–74. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

Select Committee on Medical Colleges and Societies of the New York Senate. 1846. “Report of the Committee on Medical Societies and Colleges, on Sundry Petitions from the Counties of Cayuga and Onondaga for a Homeopathic College.” Documents of the Senate of the State of New York 4, no. 108: 1–4.

William P. Seymour 1857. “History of the Cholera Epidemic of 1854, at Troy, NY.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 175–202. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

E. O. Shakespeare 1887. “Address on Some New Aspects of the Cholera Question since the Discovery by Koch of the Comma Bacillus.” Journal of the American Medical Association 8: 477–484.

E. O. Shakespeare 1890. Report on Cholera in Europe and India. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

William Sharp. 1856. The Advantages of Homeopathy. New York: William Radde.

Lemuel Shattuck. 1850. Report of the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts. Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, State Printers.

(p.276) Stephen Smith. 1869. “Report on the Measures of Prevention and Relief to Be Adopted during the Prevalence of Epidemic Cholera.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 3, 59–72. New York: William Wood.

Stephen Smith. 1911. The City That Was. New York: Frank Alaben.

C. L. Spencer 1857. Lecture on the Philosophy and Claims of Homeopathy. New York: H. Ludwig.

Thomas Spencer. 1833. “Annual Address on the Nature of Epidemic Cholera, Usually Called Asiatic Cholera.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1832, 1833, 217–341. Albany, NY: Webster and Skinners.

E. R. Squibb 1877. “Inaugural Address.” Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York, 1877, 6. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons.

John W. Sterling 1849. “History of the Asiatic Cholera at Quarantine, Staten Island, New York in December 1848 and January 1849.” New York Journal of Medicine 2, no. 3: 9–29.

T. Dwight Stow. 1864. “Homeopathy in the Army. Medical Bigotry,” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year, 1864, 246–260. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

William Sydney Thayer. 1969. Osler and Other Papers. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press.

John Thomson. 1841. “Dr. John Thomson’s Petition in Behalf of the Thomsonians.” Boston Thomsonian Manual 7, no. 9: 170–173.

Samuel Thomson. 1822. New Guide to Health. Boston: E. G. House.

Samuel Thomson. 1825. Narrative of the Life and Medical Discoveries of Samuel Thomson. Boston: E. G. House.

Samuel Thomson. 1839. The Law of Libel: Report of the Trial of Dr. Samuel Thomson, for an Alleged Libel in Warning the Public against the Impositions of Paine D. Badger. Boston: Printed by Henry P. Lewis.

Thomsonian Botanic Watchman. 1834a. “New York Delusions,” Thomsonian Botanic Watchman 1, no. 9: 129–132.

Thomsonian Botanic Watchman. 1834b. “Medical Legislation.” Thomsonian Botanic Watchman 1, no. 6: 86.

Thomsonian Messenger. 1843. “Understanding the Human System.” Thomsonian Messenger 2, no. 10: 74.

Robert N. Tooker 1885. Homeopathy and its Relation to the Germ Theory. Chicago: Gross and Delbridge.

Mark Twain. 2010. Autobiography of Mark Twain: The Complete and Authoritative Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ernst Weiss. 2009. Georg Letham: Physician and Murderer. Translated by Joel Rotenberg. New York: Archipelago Books.

William Welch. 1893. “Asiatic Cholera in its Relations to Sanitary Reforms.” Reprinted in Popular Health Magazine. Washington, DC.

William Welch. 1920a. Papers and Addresses by William Henry Welch. Vol. 2, Bacteriology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

William Welch. 1920b. Papers and Addresses by William Henry Welch. Vol. 3, Medical Education, History, and Miscellaneous. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

(p.277) P. P. Wells 1864. “The Microscope in Pathological Investigations.” Transactions of the Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of New York for the Year 1864, 90–92. Albany, NY: The Argus Company, Printers.

Caspar Whitney. September 24, 1892. “Two Days with the Cholera Exiles.” Harper’s Weekly: 919–921.

Daniel H. Whitney 1833. The Family Physician and Guide to Health. Philadelphia: H. Gilbert.

Dewitt G. Wilcox 1904. The Future of Homeopathy. Rochester, NY: Democrat and Chronicle.

C. B. Williams 1844. “Dr. C. J. B. Williams on Bilious Cholera.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 31, no. 20: 393–394.

James C. Wood 1899. “Relations of Homeopathy to Allied Systems of Therapeu-tics.” Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy, vol. 52, 107–117. New York: Rooney and Otten Printing.

James C. Wood 1902. “Presidential Address.” Transactions of the American Institute of Homeopathy, vol. 55, 34–50. Chicago: Publication Committee.

Christopher C. Yates 1832. Observations on the Epidemic Now Prevailing in the City of New York, Called the Asiatic or Spasmodic Cholera. New York: Collins and Hannay.

Secondary Sources

Andrew Abbott. 1988. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Andrew Abbott. 2005. “Linked Ecologies: States and Universities as Environments for Pro-fessions.” Sociological Theory 23, no. 3: 245–274.

Gabriel Abend. 2006. “Styles of Sociological Thought: Sociologies, Epistemologies, and the Mexican and US Quests for Truth.” Sociological Theory 24, no. 1: 1–41.

Edward H. Ackerknecht 1967. Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794–1848. Baltimore. MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

George Worthington Adams. 1996. Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Philip Alcabes. 2009. Dread: How Fear and Fantasy Have Fueled Epidemics from the Black Death to Avian Flu. New York: Public Affairs.

Lawrence K. Altman 1998. Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jean H. Baker 1983. Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-Nineteenth Century: New York: Fordham University Press.

Samuel L. Baker 1984. “Physician Licensure Laws in the United-States, 1865–1915.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 39, no. 2: 173–197.

H. D. Banta 1971. “Flexner, a Reappraisal.” Social Science and Medicine 5, no. 6: 655–661.

Kristin Barker. 2005. The Fibromyalgia Story: Medical Authority and Women’s Worlds of Pain. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

(p.278) David S. Barnes 1995. The Making of a Social Disease: Tuberculosis in Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Frank A. Barrett 1996. “Daniel Drake’s Medical Geography.” Social Science and Medicine 42, no. 6: 791–800.

John Barry. 2005. The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History. New York: Penguin.

Joseph Ben-David. 1960. “Scientific Productivity and Academic Organization in Nineteenth Century Medicine.” American Sociological Review 25, no. 6: 828–843.

Thomas Bender. 1976. “Science and the Culture of American Communities: The Nineteenth Century.” History of Education Quarterly 16, no. 1: 63–77.

Robert D. Benford, and David A. Snow. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26: 611–639.

Lee Benson. 1961. The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy; New York as a Test Case. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jeffrey Lionel Berlant. 1975. Profession and Monopoly: A Study of Medicine in the United States and Great Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Howard S. Berliner 1985. A System of Scientific Medicine: Philanthropic Foundations in the Flexner Era. New York: Tavistock.

Alex, and Michael A. Flannery Berman. 2001. America’s Botanico-Medical Movements. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press.

Mario Biagioli. 1994. Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Geoffrey Bilson. 1980. A Darkened House: Cholera in Nineteenth-Century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Arnold Birenbaum. 2002. Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.

David Bloor. 1991. Knowledge and Social Imagery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

S. W. Boggs 1947. “Cartohypnosis.” Scientific Monthly 64: 469–476.

Laurence BonJour. 1978. “Can Empirical Knowledge Have a Foundation?” American Philosophical Quarterly 15, no. 1: 1–13.

Tomas Neville Bonner. 1963. American Doctors and German Universities. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

James Bordley, and Abner McGehee Harvey. 1976. Two Centuries of American Medicine, 1776–1976. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

George H. Bornside 1982. “Waldemar Haffkine’s Cholera Vaccines and the Ferran-Haffkine Priority Dispute.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 37, no. 4: 399.

Merriley Borrell. 1987. “Instrumentation and the Rise of Modern Physiology.” Science and Technology Studies 5, no. 2: 53–62.

Augustine Brannigan. 1981. The Social Basis of Scientific Discoveries. New York: Cambridge University Press.

(p.279) Asa Briggs. 1961. “Cholera and Society in the Nineteenth Century.” Past and Present 19, no. 1: 76–96.

Charles L. Briggs, and Clara Mantini-Briggs. 2003. Stories in the Time of Cholera: Racial Profiling during a Medical Nightmare. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thomas D. Brock 1988. Robert Koch, a Life in Medicine and Bacteriology. Madison, WI: Science Tech Publishers.

E. Richard Brown. 1979. Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jerome Bruner. 1991. “The Narrative Construction of Reality.” Critical Inquiry 18, no. 1: 1–21.

William Bulloch. 1979. The History of Bacteriology. New York: Dover Publications.

Sean Burrell, and Geoffrey Gill. 2005. “The Liverpool Cholera Epidemic of 1832 and Anatomical Dissection—Medical Mistrust and Civil Unrest.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 60, no. 4: 478–498.

James Gordon Burrow. 1963. AMA: Voice of American Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Michel Callon. 1986. “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of St Brieuc Bay.” In Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge, edited by John Law, 196–233. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Bruce G. Carruthers, and Wendy Espeland. 1991. “Accounting for Rationality— Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality.” American Journal of Sociology 97, no. 1: 31–69.

John H. Cassedy 1962. Charles V. Chapin and the Public Health Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

John H. Cassedy. 1984. American Medicine and Statistical Thinking, 1800–1860. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

John Sharpe Chambers. 1938. The Conquest of Cholera: America’s Greatest Scourge. New York: Macmillan.

Marilyn Chase. 2004. The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco. New York: Random House.

Ron Chernow. 1998. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. New York: Random House.

Adele Clarke, Janet Shim, Laura Mamo, Jennifer Ruth Fosket, and Jennifer R. Fishman. 2003. “Biomedicalization: Technoscientific Transformations of Health, Illness, and US Biomedicine.” American Sociological Review 68, no. 2: 161–194.

Lorraine Code. 1995. Rhetorical Spaces: Essays on Gendered Locations. New York: Routledge.

Patricia Cline Cohen. 1982. A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

William Coleman. 1987. “Koch’s Comma Bacillus: The First Year.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 61, no. 3: 315–342.

(p.280) Harry Collins. 1992. Changing Order: Replication and Induction in Scientific Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Randall Collins. 2000. The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rita R. Colwell 2002. “A Voyage of Discovery: Cholera, Climate and Complexity.” Environmental Microbiology 4, no. 2: 67–69.

Rita R. Colwell, and Anwar Huq. 2001. “Marine Ecosystems and Cholera.” Hydro-biologia 460, no. 1–3: 141–145.

George Washington Corner. 1964. A History of the Rockefeller Institute, 1901–1953. New York: Rockefeller Institute Press.

Harris L. Coulter 1969. “Political and Social Aspects of Nineteenth-Century Medicine in the United States: The Formation of the American Medical Association and Its Struggle with Homeopathic and Eclectic Physicians.” PhD diss., Columbia University.

Harris L. Coulter 1973. Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought. Washington, DC: Wehawken Book Co.

Diana Crane. 1972. Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Molly Caldwell Crosby. 2007. The American Plague: The Untold Story of Yellow Fever, the Epidemic That Shaped Our History. New York: Berkley Books.

Andrew Cunningham. 2002. “Transforming Plague: The Laboratory and the Identity of Infectious Disease.” In The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine, edited by Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, 209–224. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lorraine Daston. 1992. “Objectivity and the Escape from Perspective.” Social Studies of Science 22, no. 4: 597–618.

Lorraine Daston, and Peter Galison. 2010. Objectivity. New York: Zone Books. Davidson, Arnold I. 2001. The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Joseph. E. Davis 2002. Stories of Change: Narrative and Social Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Peter Dear. 1992. “From Truth to Disinterestedness in the 17th-Century.” Social Studies of Science 22, no. 4: 619–631.

Thomas DeGloma. 2010. “Awakenings: Autobiography, Memory, and the Social Logic of Personal Discovery.” Sociological Forum 25, no. 3: 519–540.

Paul de Kruif. 1996. Microbe Hunters. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace.

Kenneth. A De Ville and R. B. Freeman, eds. 1990. Medical Malpractice in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: New York University Press.

Paul J. DiMaggio, and Walter W. Powell. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited—Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48, no. 2: 147–160.

Steven J. Diner 1998. A Very Different Age: Americans of the Progressive Era. New York: Hill and Wang.

Mary Douglas. 1986. How Institutions Think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

(p.281) John Downer. 2011. “‘737-Cabriolet’: The Limits of Knowledge and the Sociology of Inevitable Failure.” American Journal of Sociology 117, no. 3: 725–762.

René Dubos. 1987. Mirage of Health: Utopias, Progress and Biological Change. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

John Duffy. 1968. A History of Public Health in New York City: 1866–1966. Vol. 1. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

John Duffy. 1974. A History of Public Health in New York City: 1866–1966. Vol. 2. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

John Duffy. 1990. The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

John Duffy. 1993. From Humors to Medical Science: A History of American Medicine. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Joseph Dumit. 2006. “Illnesses You Have to Fight to Get: Facts as Forces in Uncertain, Emergent Illnesses.” Social Science and Medicine 62, no. 3: 577–590.

Michael Durey. 1979. The Return of the Plague: British Society and the Cholera, 1831–2. New York: Gill and Macmillan.

Albert W. Dzur 2004. “Civic Participation in Professional Domains.” The Good Society 13, no. 1: 1–5.

David M. Eisenberg, Roger B. Davis, Susan L. Ettner, Scott Appel, Sonja Wilkey, Maria Van Rompay, and Ronald C. Kessler. 1998. “Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States, 1990–1997: Results of a Follow-up National Survey.” JAMA 280, no. 18: 1569–1575.

Jack D. Ellis 1990. The Physician-Legislators of France: Medicine and Politics in the Early Third Republic, 1870–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press.

John H. Ellis 1992. Yellow Fever and Public Health in the New South. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Steven Epstein. 1996. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Richard J. Evans 2005. Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years. New York: Penguin Books.

Paul W. Ewald 2002. Plague Time: The New Germ Theory of Disease. New York: Anchor Books.

Ron Eyerman, and Andrew Jamison. 1991. Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

John M. Eyler 1973. “William Farr on the Cholera: The Sanitarian’s Disease Theory and the Statistician’s Method.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 28, no. 2: 79–100.

H. M. Fangerau 2006. “The Novel Arrowsmith, Paul de Kruif (1890–1971) and Jacques Loeb (1859–1924): A Literary Portrait of ‘Medical Science.’” Medical Humanities 32, no. 2: 82–87.

Paul Farmer. 2001. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Drew G. Faust 2009. This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War. New York: Vintage.

(p.282) Elizabeth Fee, and Evelynn M. Hammonds. 1995. “Science, Politics and the Art of Persuasion.” In Hives of Sickness: Public Health and Epidemics in New York City, edited by David Rosner, 155—196. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Daniel Feller 1990. “Politics and Society: Toward a Jacksonian Synthesis.” Journal of the Early Republic 10, no. 2: 135–161.

Morris Fishbein 1947. A History of the American Medical Association, 1847 to 1947. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Ludwig Fleck. 1979. Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Donald Fleming. 1987. William H. Welch and the Rise of Modern Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Michael A. Fortun 2008. Promising Genomics: Iceland and deCODE Genetics in a World of Speculation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Michel Foucault. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. Brighton, UK: Harvester Press.

Michel Foucault. 1994. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage.

Michel Foucault. 2002. Archaeology of Knowledge New York: Routledge.

Marion Fourcade. 2009. Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Marion Fourcade-Gourinchas. 2001. “Politics, Institutional Structures, and the Rise of Economics: A Comparative Study.” Theory and Society 30, no. 3: 397–447.

Eliot Freidson. 1970. Professional Dominance: The Social Structure of Medical Care. New York: Atherton Press.

Eliot Freidson. 1986. Professional Powers: A Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Eliot Freidson. 1988. Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Eliot Freidson. 2001. Professionalism: The Third Logic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Scott Frickel. 2004. Chemical Consequences: Environmental Mutagens, Scientist Activism, and the Rise of Genetic Toxicology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Scott Frickel, and Neil Gross. 2005. “A General Theory of Scientific/Intellectual Movements.” American Sociological Review 70, no. 2: 204–232.

Miranda Fricker. 2007. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nancy M. Frieden 1977. “The Russian Cholera Epidemic, 1892–93, and Medical Professionalization.” Journal of Social History 10, no. 4: 538–559.

Stephan Fuchs. 1992. The Professional Quest for Truth: A Social Theory of Science and Knowledge. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Steve Fuller. 2002. Social Epistemology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

(p.283) Gerald L. Geison 1984. Professions and the French State, 1700–1900. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Alexander L. George, and Andrew Bennett. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Norman Gevitz. 1992. “The Fate of Sectarian Medical Education.” In Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, edited by Norman Barzansky, 83–97. New York: Greenwood Press.

Anthony Giddens. 1984. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Struc-turation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thomas Gieryn. 1983. “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists.” American Sociological Review 48, no. 6: 781–795.

Thomas Gieryn. 1999. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

E. W. Gilbert 1958. “Pioneer Maps of Health and Disease in England.” Geographical Journal 124, no. 2: 172–183.

G. Nigel Gilbert, and Michael Mulkay. 1984. Opening Pandora’s Box: A Sociological Analysis of Scientists’ Discourse. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pamela K. Gilbert. 2008. Cholera and Nation: Doctoring the Social Body in Victorian England. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Carlo Ginzburg. 1980. “Morelli, Freud and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method.” History Workshop, no. 9: 5–36.

Carlo Ginzburg. 1992. The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Andreas Glaeser. 2011. Political Epistemics: The Secret Police, the Opposition, and the End of East German Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jan E. Goldstein 1990. Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Patricia Peck Gossel. 1992. “A Need for Standard Methods: The Case of American Bacteriology.” In The Right Tools for the Job, edited by Adele E. Clarke and Joan H. Fujimora, 287–311. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Christoph Gradmann. 2008. “A Matter of Methods: The Historicity of Koch’s Postulates 1840–2000.” Medizinhistorisches Journal 43, no. 2: 121–148.

Christoph Gradmann. 2009. Laboratory Disease: Robert Koch’s Medical Bacteriology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Gerald N. Grob 2002. The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

David H. Guston 1999. “Stabilizing the Boundary between US Politics and Science: The Role of the Office of Technology Transfer as a Boundary Organization.” Social Studies of Science 29, no. 1: 87–111.

Ian Hacking. 1983. Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ian Hacking. 1985. “Styles of Scientific Reasoning.” In Post-analytic Philosophy, edited (p.284) by John Rajchman and Cornel West, 145–164. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ian Hacking. 1990. The Taming of Chance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

John S. Haller 1981. American Medicine in Transition 1840–1910. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

John S. Haller 2000. The People’s Doctors: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement, 1790–1860. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

John S. Haller 2005. The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820–1935. Binghamton, NY: Informa HealthCare.

Karen Halttunen. 1986. Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Christopher Hamlin. 2009. Cholera: The Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.

Evelynn Hammonds. 1999. Childhood’s Deadly Scourge: The Campaign to Control Diphtheria in New York City, 1880–1930. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bert Hansen. 1999. “New Images of a New Medicine: Visual Evidence for the Widespread Popularity of Therapeutic Discoveries in America after 1885.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 73, no. 4: 629–678.

Donna Haraway. 2006. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.

Sandra G. Harding 1986. The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Sandra G. Harding 1998. Is Science Multicultural? Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Thomas L. Haskell 1985. “Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility, Part 1.” American Historical Review 90, no. 2: 339–361.

David J. Hess 2004. “Medical Modernisation, Scientific Research Fields and the Epistemic Politics of Health Social Movements.” Sociology of Health and Illness 26, no. 6: 695–709.

Stephen Hilgartner. 2000. Science on Stage: Expert Advice as Public Drama. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Richard Hofstadter. 1963. Anti-Intellectualism in American Life. New York: Knopf.

Daniel Walker Howe. 2007. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. New York: Oxford University Press.

Margaret Humphreys. 1999. Yellow Fever and the South. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Margaret Humphreys. 2002. “No Safe Place: Disease and Panic in American History.” American Literary History 14, no. 4: 845–857.

William James. 1890. The Principles of Psychology: New York: Henry Holt.

William James. 1909. A Pluralistic Universe. New York: Longmans, Green.

William James. 1976. Essays in Radical Empiricism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(p.285) Saul Jarcho. 1970. “Yellow Fever, Cholera, and the Beginnings of Medical Cartog-raphy.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 25, no. 2: 131–142.

Nicholas Jardine. 1992. “The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine as Rhetorical and Aesthetic Accomplishment.’” In The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine, edited by Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, 304–323. New York: Cambridge University Press.

James M. Jasper 2006. Getting Your Way: Strategic Dilemmas in the Real World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

N. D. Jewson 1974. “Medical Knowledge and Patronage System in 18th Century England.” Sociology 8, no. 3: 269–385.

N. D. Jewson. 1976. “The Disappearance of the Sick-Man from Medical Cosmology 1870– 1970.” Sociology 10, no. 2: 225–44.

Steven Johnson. 2006. The Ghost Map: The Story of London’s Most Terrifying Epidemic—and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World. New York: Riverhead Books.

Russell M. Jones 1970. “American Doctors in Paris, 1820–1861: A Statistical Profile.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 25, no. 2: 143–157.

Albert Jonsen, and Stephen Toulmin. 1988. The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Alvin Kass. 1965. Politics in New York State, 1800–1830. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Michael Kater. 1985. “Professionalization and Socialization of Physicians in Wil-helmine and Weimar Germany.” Journal of Contemporary History 20, no. 4: 677–701.

Jay Katz. 2002. The Silent World of Doctor and Patient. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Martin Kaufman. 1988. “Homeopathy in America: The Rise and Fall and Persistence of a Medical Heresy.” In Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America, edited by Norman Gevitz, 99–123. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Steven Kelman. 1987. “The Political Foundations of American Statistical Policy.” In The Politics of Statistics, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr, 275–302. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Joseph F. Kett 1968. The Formation of the American Medical Profession: The Role of Institutions, 1780–1860. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Jaegwon Kim. 1988. “What Is Naturalized Epistemology?” Philosophical Perspectives, no. 2: 381–405.

Daniel Lee Kleinman, and Abby J. Kinchy. 2003. “Boundaries in Science Policy Making: Bovine Growth Hormone in the European Union.” Sociological Quarterly 44, no. 4: 577–595.

Karin Knorr-Cetina. 1999. Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tom Koch. 2005. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

(p.286) Lawrence Frederick Kohl. 1989. The Politics of Individualism: Parties and the American Character in the Jacksonian Era. New York: Oxford University Press.

Robert E. Kohler 2002. Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Elliott A. Krause 1996. Death of the Guilds: Professions, States, and the Advance of Capitalism, 1930 to the Present. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Alan M. Kraut 1995. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the “Immigrant Menace.” Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Steven Kroll, Steve Kroll-Smith, and H. Hugh Floyd. 2000. Bodies in Protest: Environmental Illness and the Struggle over Medical Knowledge. New York: New York University Press.

Catherine J. Kudlick 1996. Cholera in Post-Revolutionary Paris: A Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thomas S. Kuhn 1962. “Historical Structure of Scientific Discovery.” Science 136, no. 1358: 760–764.

Thomas S. Kuhn 1996. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Charles Kurzman. 1994. “Epistemology and the Sociology of Knowledge.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24, no. 3: 267–290.

Jens Lachmund. 1998. “Between Scrutiny and Treatment: Physical Diagnosis and the Restructuring of 19th Century Medical Practice.” Sociology of Health and Illness 20, no. 6: 779–801.

Andrew Lakoff. 2005. Pharmaceutical Reason: Knowledge and Value in Global Psychiatry. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Magali Sarfatti Larson. 1977. The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bruno Latour. 1987. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bruno Latour. 1988. The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bruno Latour. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bruno Latour, and Steve Woolgar. 1986. Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

John Law. 1992. “Notes on the Theory of the Actor-Network: Ordering, Strategy, and Heterogeneity.” Systemic Practice and Action Research 5, no. 4: 379–393.

Judith Walzer Leavitt. 1992. “‘Typhoid Mary’ Strikes Back: Bacteriological Theory and Practice in Early Twentieth-Century Public Health.” Isis 83, no. 4: 608–629.

Michael Lewis. 2004. Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. New York: W. W. Norton.

Sinclair Lewis. 2008. Arrowsmith. New York: Signet Classics.

Donald Light, and Sol Levine. 1988. “The Changing Character of the Medical Profession: A Theoretical Overview.” Milbank Quarterly 66, suppl. 2: 10–32.

(p.287) Helen. E. Longino 2002. The Fate of Knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Norman Longmate. 1966. King Cholera: The Biography of a Disease: London: Hamilton.

Ilana Löwy. 1992. “From Guinea Pigs to Man: The Development of Haffkine’s Anticholera Vaccine.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 47, no. 3: 270–309.

Kenneth Ludmerer. 1985. Learning to Heal. New York: Basic Books.

Gregoire Mallard, Michele Lamont, and Joshua Guetzkow. 2009. “Fairness as Appropriateness.” Science, Technology and Human Values 34, no. 5: 573–606.

Karl Mannheim. 1992. Essays on the Sociology of Culture. New York: Routledge.

James March, and Herbert Simon. 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley.

Alan Marcus. 1979. “Disease Prevention in America: From a Local to a National Outlook, 1880–1910.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53, no. 2: 184–203.

Howard Markel. 1997. Quarantine! East European Jewish Immigrants and the New York City Epidemics of 1892. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Howard Markel. 2008. The Principles and Practice of Medicine.” Journal of the American Medical Association 299, no. 10: 1199.

Howard Markel, and Alexandra Minna Stern. 2002. “The Foreignness of Germs: The Persistent Association of Immigrants and Disease in American Society.” Milbank Quarterly 80, no. 4: 757–788.

Gerald E. Markowitz, and David Rosner. 1973. “Doctors in Crisis: A Study of the Use of Medical Education Reform to Establish Modern Professional Elitism in Medicine.” American Quarterly 25, no. 1: 83–107.

Geoffrey Marks, and William K. Beatty. 1973. The Story of Medicine in America. New York: Scribner.

Chantelle Marlor. 2010. “Bureaucracy, Democracy and Exclusion: Why Indigenous Knowledge Holders Have a Hard Time Being Taken Seriously.” Qualitative Sociology 33, no. 4: 1–19.

J. Rosser Matthews. 1995. Quantification and the Quest for Medical Certainty. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Russell C. Maulitz 1979. “Physician Versus Bacteriologist: The Ideology of Science in Clinical Medicine.” In The therapeutic Revolution: Essays in the Social History of American Medicine, edited by Morris J. Vogel and Charles Rosenberg, 91–107. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Russell C. Maulitz. 1982. “Robert Koch and American-Medicine.” Annals of Internal Medicine 97, no. 5: 761–766.

Andrew McClary. 1980. “Germs Are Everywhere: The Germ Threat as Seen in Magazine Articles.” Journal of American Culture 3, no. 1: 33–46.

Deidre N. McCloskey 1985. The Rhetoric of Economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Thomas McKeown. 1976. The Modern Rise of Population. London: Edward Arnold.

Thomas McKeown. 1979. The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage, or Nemesis? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

(p.288) Richard A. Meckel 1998. Save the Babies: American Public Health Reform and the Prevention of Infant Mortality, 1850–1929. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Louis Menand. 2001. The Metaphysical Club. New York: Macmillan.

Robert K. Merton 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

Robert K. Merton 1973. The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Marvin Meyers. 1957. The Jacksonian Persuasion: Politics and Belief. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

David Mindich. 2000. Just the Facts: How “Objectivity” Came to Define American Journalism. New York: New York University Press.

Gregg Mitman, and Ronald L. Numbers. 2003. “From Miasma to Asthma: The Changing Fortunes of Medical Geography in America.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25, no. 3: 391–412.

Kathryn Montgomery. 2006. How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kelley Moore. 1996. “Organizing Integrity: American Science and the Creation of Public Interest Organizations, 1955–1975.” American Journal of Sociology 101, no. 6: 1592–1627.

Robert John Morris. 1976. Cholera 1832: The Social Response to an Epidemic. London: Holm and Meier.

Claudette Michelle Murphy. 2006. Sick Building Syndrome and the Problem of Uncertainty: Environmental Politics, Technoscience, and Women Workers. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Thomas Nagel. 1989. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peter Novick. 1988. That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the American Historical Profession. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ronald L. Numbers 1978. Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912–1920. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ronald L. Numbers 1988. “The Fall and Rise of the American Medical Profession.” In The Professions in American History, edited by Nathan O. Hatch, 51–72. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

M. Ogawa 2000. “Uneasy Bedfellows: Science and Politics in the Refutation of Koch’s Bacterial Theory of Cholera.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 74, no. 4: 671–707.

Alexandra Oleson, and John Voss. 1979. The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1860–1920. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Michael A. Osborne 2000. “The Geographical Imperative in Nineteenth-Century French Medicine.” Medical History Supplement 20: 31–50.

Talcott Parsons. 1964. Essays in Sociological Theory. New York: Free Press.

Talcott Parsons. 1991. The Social System. New York: Routledge.

Wendy Patterson. 2002. Strategic Narrative: New Perspectives on the Power of Personal and Cultural Stories. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Harry W. Paul 1990. “Review of The Pasteurization of France by Bruno Latour.” American Journal of Sociology 96, no. 1: 232–234.

(p.289) Howard Henry Peckham. 1994. The Making of the University of Michigan, 1817–1992. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Bentley Library.

Charles Saunders Peirce. 1955. Philosophical Writings of Peirce. New York: Dover.

Charles Peirce. 1978. The Philosophy of Peirce: Selected Writings. New York: AMS Press.

Bert Penders, John Verbakel, and Annemeik Nelis. 2009. “The Social Study of Corporate Science: A Research Manifesto.” Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 29, no. 6: 439–446.

Chaim Perelman, and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca. 1969. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Edward Pessen. 1969. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

Andrew Pickering. 1984. Constructing Quarks: A Sociological History of Particle Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Michael Polanyi. 1958. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Francesca Polletta. 2006. It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mary Poovey. 1998. A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Karl Popper. 1992. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge.

Roy Porter. 1998. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W. W. Norton.

Theodore M. Porter 1988. The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Theodore M. Porter 1994. “Making Things Quantitative.” Science in Context 7, no. 3: 389–407.

Theodore M. Porter 1995. Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hilary Putnam. 1995. Words and Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hilary Putnam. 1999. The Threefold Cord: Mind, Body, and World. New York: Columbia University Press.

Jill Quadagno. 2005. One Nation, Uninsured: Why the US Has No National Health Insurance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mike Reay. 2010. “Knowledge Distribution, Embodiment, and Insulation.” Sociological Theory 28, no. 1: 91–107.

Isaac Reed. 2011. Interpretation and Social Knowledge: On the Use of Theory in the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Catherine Kohler Riessman. 1993. Narrative Analysis, Qualitative Research Methods Series. London: Sage.

David Reynolds. 2008. Waking Giant: America in the Age of Jackson. New York: Harper.

Phyllis Allen Richmond. 1947. “Etiological Theory in America prior to the Civil War.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 2, no. 4: 489–520.

Phyllis Allen Richmond. 1954. “American Attitudes toward the Germ Theory of Disease.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 9, no. 4: 428–454.

(p.290) Terrie M. Romano 1997. “The Cattle Plague of 1865 and the Reception of ‘The Germ Theory’ in Mid-Victorian Britain.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 52, no. 1: 51–80.

George Rosen. 1993. A History of Public Health. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

George Rosen, and Charles E. Rosenberg. 1983. The Structure of American Medical Practice, 1875–1941. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1963. “Martin Arrowsmith: The Scientist as Hero.” American Quarterly 15, no. 3: 447–458.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1966. “Cholera in Nineteenth-Century Europe—Tool for Social and Economic Analysis.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 8, no. 4: 452–463.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1977. “And Heal the Sick: The Hospital and the Patient in the 19th Century America.” Journal of Social History 10, no. 4: 428–447.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1987a. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System. New York: Basic Books.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1987b. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Charles E. Rosenberg 1995. The Trial of the Assassin Guiteau: Psychiatry and the Law in the Gilded Age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Charles E. Rosenberg. 2002. “The Tyranny of Diagnosis: Specific Entities and Individual Experience.” Milbank Quarterly 80, no. 2: 237–260.

Barbara Guttmann Rosenkrantz. 1974. “Cart before Horse: Theory, Practice and Professional Image in American Public Health, 1870–1920.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 29, no. 1: 55–73.

Barbara Guttmann Rosenkrantz. 1985. “The Search for Professional Order in 19th-Century American Medicine.” In Sickness and Health in America, edited by Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, 219–232. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

David Rosner. 1982. A Once Charitable Enterprise: Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn and New York, 1885–1915. New York: Cambridge University Press.

David J. Rothman 1991. Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. New York: Basic Books.

William G. Rothstein 1992. American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Frederick Rudolph, and John R. Thelin. 1991. The American College and University: A History. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Ira Rutkow. 2010. Seeking the Cure: A History of Medicine in America. New York: Scribner.

Mike Saks. 2003. Orthodox and Alternative Medicine: Politics, Professionalization, and Health Care. New York: Continuum.

Volker Scheid. 2002. Chinese Medicine in Contemporary China: Plurality and Synthesis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

James C. Scott 1985. Weapons of the Weak: New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

W. Richard Scott, Martin Ruef, Peter J. Mendel, and Carol A. Caronna. 2000. Institutional (p.291) Change and Healthcare Organizations: From Professional Dominance to Managed Care. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Michael Schudson. 1981. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. New York: Basic Books.

Michael Schudson. 1998. The Good Citizen: A History of American Civic Life. New York: Martin Kessler Books.

Libby Schweber. 2006. Disciplining Statistics: Demography and Vital Statistics in France and England, 1830–1885. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

William Sewell Jr.. 1992. “A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transforma-tion.” American Journal of Sociology 98, no. 1: 1–29.

William Sewell Jr.. 2005. “The Concept(s) of Culture.” In Practicing History: New Directions in Historical Writing a er the Linguistic Turn, edited by Gabrielle M. Spiegel, 141–161. New York: Psychology Press.

Steven Shapin. 1994. A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Steven Shapin. 2008. The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Steven Shapin, and Simon Schaffer. 1985. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Edward Shorter. 1985. Bedside Manners: The Troubled History of Doctors and Patients. New York: Simon and Schuster.

S. E. D. Shortt 1983. “Physicians, Science, and Status—Issues in the Professionalization of Anglo-American Medicine in the 19th-Century.” Medical History 27, no. 1: 51–68.

Richard H. Shryock 1967. Medical Licensing in America, 1650–1965. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Alan Sica. 2010. “Merton, Mannheim, and the Sociology of Knowledge.” In Robert K. Merton: Sociology of Science and Sociology as Science, edited by C. Calhoun, 164–182. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kenneth Silverman. 1984. The Life and Times of Cotton Mather. New York: Harper-Collins.

W.G Smillie. 1943. “The National Board of Health 1879–1883.” American Journal of Public Health 33, no. 8: 925–930.

Wesley Spink. 1978. Infectious Diseases: Prevention and Treatment in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Paul Starr. 1976. “The Politics of Therapeutic Nihilism.” Hastings Center Report 6, no. 5: 24–30.

Paul Starr. 1982. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books.

Paul Starr. 1987. “The Sociology of Official Statistics,” In The Politics of Statistics, edited by William Alonso and Paul Starr, 7–58. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Paul Starr. 2011. Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle over Health Care Reform. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

(p.292) Rosemary Stevens. 1971. American Medicine and the Public Interest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Lloyd G. Stevenson 1965. “Putting Disease on the Map: The Early Use of Spot Maps in the Study of Yellow Fever.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 20, no. 3: 226–261.

Philip Strong. 1990. “Epidemic Psychology: A Model.” Sociology of Health and Illness 12, no. 3: 249–259.

Mervyn Susser, and Ezra Susser. 1996. “Choosing a Future for Epidemiology: I. Eras and Paradigms.” American Journal of Public Health 86, no. 5: 668–668.

Owsei Temkin. 1977. The Double Face of Janus and Other Essays in the History of Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Sylvia Noble Tesh. 1988. Hidden Arguments: Political Ideology and Disease Prevention Policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

E. P. Thompson 1968. The Making of the English Working Class. London: IICA.

Charles Tilly. 2006. Why? What Happens When People Give Reasons … And Why. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Stefan Timmermans, and Hyeyoung Oh. 2010. “The Continued Social Transformation of the Medical Profession.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51, no. 1 suppl.: S94–S106.

Nancy J. Tomes 1997. “American Attitudes toward the Germ Theory of Disease: Phyllis Allen Richmond Revisited.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 52, no. 1: 17–50.

Nancy J. Tomes 1998. The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women, and the Microbe in American Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nancy J., and John Harley Warner Tomes. 1997. “Introduction to Special Issue on Rethinking the Reception of the Germ Theory of Disease: Comparative Perspectives.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 52, no. 1: 7–16.

Stephen Toulmin. 1992. Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Alan Trachtenberg. 2007. The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang.

Philip Van Ingen. 1949. The New York Academy of Medicine: Its First Hundred Years. New York: Columbia University Press.

Diane Vaughan. 1996. The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Diane Vaughan. 1999. “The Role of the Organizations in the Production of Techno-Scientific Knowledge.” Social Studies of Science 29, no. 6: 913–943.

Diane Vaughan. 2004. “Theorizing Disaster: Analogy, Historical Ethnography, and the Challenger Accident.” Ethnography 5, no. 3: 315–347.

Keith Vernon. 1990. “Pus, Sewage, Beer and Milk—Microbiology in Britain, 1870– 1940.” History of Science 28, part 3, no. 81: 289–325.

Laurence R. Veysey 1965. The Emergence of the American University. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Peter Vinten-Johansen, Howard Brody, Nigel Paneth, Stephen Rachman, and Michael Russell Rip. (p.293) 2003. Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow. New York: Oxford University Press.

Matthew K Waldor, Eric J. Rubin, Gregory D. N. Pearson, Harvey Kimsey, and John J. Mekalanos. 2003. “Regulation, Replication, and Integration Functions of the Vibrio Cholerae CTX Are Encoded by Region RS2.” Molecular Microbiology, 24, no. 5: 917–926.

John Harley Warner. 1991. “Ideals of Science and Their Discontents in Late 19th-Century American Medicine.” Isis 82, no. 313: 454–478.

John Harley Warner. 1997. The Therapeutic Perspective: Medical Practice, Knowledge, and Identity in America, 1820–1885. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

John Harley Warner. 1998. Against the Spirit of System: The French Impulse in Nineteenth-Century American Medicine. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

John Harley Warner. 2002. “The Fall and Rise of Professional Mystery: Epistemology, Authority, and the Emergence of Laboratory Medicine in Nineteenth-Century America.” In The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine, edited by Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, 110–141. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Max Weber. 2002. The Protestant Ethic and the “Spirit” of Capitalism and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Books.

Karl E. Weick 1979. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

George Weisz. 1978. “The Politics of Medical Professionalization in France 1845– 1848.” Journal of Social History 12, no. 1: 3–30.

Steven C. Wheatley 1988. The Politics of Philanthropy: Abraham Flexner and Medical Education. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Hayden White. 1980. “The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality.” Critical Inquiry 7, no. 1: 5–27.

Owen Whooley. 2008. “Objectivity and Its Discontents: Knowledge Advocacy in the Sally Hemings Controversy.” Social Forces 86, no. 4: 1367–1389.

Owen Whooley. 2010. “Diagnostic Ambivalence: Psychiatric Workarounds and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.” Sociology of Health and Illness 32, no. 3: 452–469.

James C. Whorton 1982. Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

James C. Whorton 2002. Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Major L. Wilson 1974. Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815–1861. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Michael Worboys. 2000. Spreading Germs: Diseases, Theories, and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900. New York: Cambridge University Press.

James Harvey Young. 1967. The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Eviatar Zerubavel. 1999. Social Mindscapes: An Invitation to Cognitive Sociology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

(p.294) Eviatar Zerubavel. 2003. Terra Cognita: The Mental Discovery of America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Eviatar Zerubavel. 2011. Ancestors and Relatives: Genealogy, Identity, and Community. New York: Oxford University Press.

Terra Ziporyn. 1988. Disease in the Popular American Press: The Case of Diphtheria, Typhoid Fever, and Syphilis, 1870–1920. New York: Greenwood Press.